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Chapter 8: Communication Disorders (Heward)
Transcript of Chapter 8: Communication Disorders (Heward)
Speech or Language Impairment: IDEA
"a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 283).
Types of Speech Disorders
: "Interactive exchange of information, ideas, feelings, needs and desires" Includes: Message; Sender who expresses message; Receiver who responds to message (p. 277)
: A code used by a group of people to communicate with each other (p. 278); abstract symbols + set of rules for combining them
: Oral production of language (p. 279)
Can be developmental or acquired
Vary widely in degree of severity, from mild to profound
Can be the primary disability or secondary to another disability
May result in social problems in school.
Communication Difference v. Disability
Fluency Example: Stuttering
Deficits in 1 or more of 5 areas:
Phonology- has to do with the sound systems in languages
Morphology- involves units of meaning and how they combine into words
Syntax- rules of organizing words into meaningful sentences, includes plural, tense, pronoun "Her did it"
Semantics- rules about attaching meaning to words
Pragmatics- rules about using language for social purposes (adjusting language to listener, staying on topic, using language for different purposes)
Characteristics of Language Impairments: Primary Grades
Characteristics of Language Impairments: Secondary Level
19% of SWD receive services in the SLP category
Actual prevalence is much higher as 50% of students who receive services due to another primary disability
also have a communication disorder
The % of children with SLP disorders decreases significantly from the earlier to the later school grades. WHY?
Did anyone receive SLP services in school?
Identification and Assessment
Referrals from classroom teachers (p. 291 checklist)
A comprehensive evaluation would then be conducted, based on the type of Speech/Language disability suspected. Can include:
Assessment of overall language development and vocabulary
Observation in various settings
Increase Naturalistic Opportunities for Language Teaching
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
Speech or Language Impairment
Speech is considered to be impaired "when it deviates so far from the speech of other people that it
a) calls attention to itself
b) interferes with communication
c) provokes distress in the speaker or listener" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 283)
Must take into consideration age, education and cultural background.
"impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or symbol systems" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 284)
Form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax)
Content of language (semantics)
Function of language in communication (pragmatics)
Some children have a dialect difference from the dominant culture in the school. This is not necessarily a disability. A difference becomes a disability when:
The transmission or perception of messages is faulty
The person is placed at an economic, learning, or social disadvantage
There is a negative impact upon the person's emotional growth
The most common placement for SW/SL disorders is almost exclusively in the General Education classroom
More than any other category of disability
Question... Honey Boo Boo's mom June... disability or difference?
(Most common speech disorders)
- child cannot produce a given sound physically; usually only a few sounds impacted; might add, delete, substitute or distort sounds
- child CAN produce the sound but does so inconsistently ; multiple sound errors; can impact reading
Interruption in speech flow; stuttering is best known form
Abnormalities of speech related to volume, quality or pitch
Voice Disorder Example
Can be a problem in:
RECEPTIVE language (reading, listening); interferes with understanding of language
EXPRESSIVE language (writing, speaking); interferes production of language
Disruption in the usual rate/sequence in which specific language skills emerge
Problems in Following Verbal Directions
Poor Word Attack Skills
Problems Learning New Material
Inadequate Language Processing and Production that Affects Reading Comprehension and Academic Achievement
Inability to Understand Abstract Concepts
Difficulties Connecting Previously Learned Information to New Material that Must Be Learned Independently
Widening Gap in Achievement When Compared to Peers
The Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) is the school-based professional with the primary responsibility for identifying, evaluating and providing services to children with communication disorders.
Can include pullout and/or push-in models
Push-in model allows for the student to receive SLP services in the child's most natural environment in conjunction with other content being learned.
Focus in on transfer of communication skills.
Requires collaboration and planning.
Take advantage of naturally occurring activities to provide children with motivation and opportunities to use language skills (Heward, p. 299)
1. Using materials the stdent is likely to want to communicate- tap interests
2. Provide opportunities for choice which require the student to communicate ("What would you like to do now?"
3. Place items out of reach or introduce instances when the student will need assistance operating or manipulating materials.
WHAT CAN I DO?
AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION- techniques that supplement or enhance communication by
whatever vocal skills the individual already has.
ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION- techniques used by individuals who must employ techniques that serve
in place of
Unaided techniques do not require a physical aid/device
Aided techniques involve and external device or piece of equipment
Communication Boards- Includes common words, phrases, numbers
Electronic Communication Aids- Dynavox
TLP: Talking with Pictures
Picture Exchange Communication System
Teaches nonverbal users to communicate with pictures
Pick up, reach for, release a single picture into the hands of someone holding a desired item
Distance increases between the parties
Child learns to discriminate between pictures (cracker v. pretzel)
Introduces simple sentence structure
Simple questions are introduced
Child learns to make comments
What can classroom teachers do to support students with Speech and Language Disorders?