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Chapter 8: Communication Disorders (Heward)

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Maizy Jaklitsch

on 13 April 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 8: Communication Disorders (Heward)

Chapter 8: Communication Disorders (Heward)
Speech or Language Impairment: IDEA
"a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 283).
Types of Speech Disorders
Language Disorders
: "Interactive exchange of information, ideas, feelings, needs and desires" Includes: Message; Sender who expresses message; Receiver who responds to message (p. 277)

: A code used by a group of people to communicate with each other (p. 278); abstract symbols + set of rules for combining them

: Oral production of language (p. 279)
Can be developmental or acquired

Vary widely in degree of severity, from mild to profound

Can be the primary disability or secondary to another disability

May result in social problems in school.
Speech Impairments
Language Impairments
Communication Difference v. Disability
Fluency Example: Stuttering
Deficits in 1 or more of 5 areas:
Phonology- has to do with the sound systems in languages

Morphology- involves units of meaning and how they combine into words

Syntax- rules of organizing words into meaningful sentences, includes plural, tense, pronoun "Her did it"

Semantics- rules about attaching meaning to words

Pragmatics- rules about using language for social purposes (adjusting language to listener, staying on topic, using language for different purposes)
Characteristics of Language Impairments: Primary Grades
Characteristics of Language Impairments: Secondary Level
19% of SWD receive services in the SLP category
Actual prevalence is much higher as 50% of students who receive services due to another primary disability
also have a communication disorder

The % of children with SLP disorders decreases significantly from the earlier to the later school grades. WHY?

Did anyone receive SLP services in school?
Identification and Assessment
Kindergarten screenings
Referrals from classroom teachers (p. 291 checklist)
A comprehensive evaluation would then be conducted, based on the type of Speech/Language disability suspected. Can include:
Articulation test
Hearing screening
Assessment of overall language development and vocabulary
Observation in various settings

Educational Approaches
Increase Naturalistic Opportunities for Language Teaching
Collaborate w/SLP
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
Speech or Language Impairment
Speech is considered to be impaired "when it deviates so far from the speech of other people that it

a) calls attention to itself

b) interferes with communication

c) provokes distress in the speaker or listener" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 283)

Must take into consideration age, education and cultural background.
Articulation Disorders
Fluency Disorders
Voice Disorders
"impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or symbol systems" (as cited in Heward, 2013, p. 284)
May involve:
Form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax)

Content of language (semantics)

Function of language in communication (pragmatics)
Some children have a dialect difference from the dominant culture in the school. This is not necessarily a disability. A difference becomes a disability when:

The transmission or perception of messages is faulty

The person is placed at an economic, learning, or social disadvantage

There is a negative impact upon the person's emotional growth
The most common placement for SW/SL disorders is almost exclusively in the General Education classroom

More than any other category of disability
Question... Honey Boo Boo's mom June... disability or difference?
Speech-Sound Errors
(Most common speech disorders)

Articulation Disorders
- child cannot produce a given sound physically; usually only a few sounds impacted; might add, delete, substitute or distort sounds

Phonological Disorders
- child CAN produce the sound but does so inconsistently ; multiple sound errors; can impact reading

Fluency Disorders
Interruption in speech flow; stuttering is best known form

Voice Disorders
Abnormalities of speech related to volume, quality or pitch
Voice Disorder Example
Can be a problem in:
RECEPTIVE language (reading, listening); interferes with understanding of language
EXPRESSIVE language (writing, speaking); interferes production of language
Disruption in the usual rate/sequence in which specific language skills emerge
Problems in Following Verbal Directions

Phonics Problems

Poor Word Attack Skills

Problems Learning New Material

Inadequate Language Processing and Production that Affects Reading Comprehension and Academic Achievement

Inability to Understand Abstract Concepts

Difficulties Connecting Previously Learned Information to New Material that Must Be Learned Independently

Widening Gap in Achievement When Compared to Peers

The Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) is the school-based professional with the primary responsibility for identifying, evaluating and providing services to children with communication disorders.
Can include pullout and/or push-in models

Push-in model allows for the student to receive SLP services in the child's most natural environment in conjunction with other content being learned.

Focus in on transfer of communication skills.

Requires collaboration and planning.
Take advantage of naturally occurring activities to provide children with motivation and opportunities to use language skills (Heward, p. 299)


1. Using materials the stdent is likely to want to communicate- tap interests

2. Provide opportunities for choice which require the student to communicate ("What would you like to do now?"

3. Place items out of reach or introduce instances when the student will need assistance operating or manipulating materials.
AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION- techniques that supplement or enhance communication by
whatever vocal skills the individual already has.

ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION- techniques used by individuals who must employ techniques that serve
in place of

Unaided techniques do not require a physical aid/device
Aided techniques involve and external device or piece of equipment


Communication Boards- Includes common words, phrases, numbers

Electronic Communication Aids- Dynavox

TLP: Talking with Pictures
Picture Exchange Communication System

Teaches nonverbal users to communicate with pictures

Several phases:
Pick up, reach for, release a single picture into the hands of someone holding a desired item
Distance increases between the parties
Child learns to discriminate between pictures (cracker v. pretzel)
Introduces simple sentence structure
Simple questions are introduced
Child learns to make comments
What can classroom teachers do to support students with Speech and Language Disorders?
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