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CTSS 3A3 Sangeetha (29) Embedded Processors and Automation

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Sangeetha Ramesh

on 4 April 2011

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Transcript of CTSS 3A3 Sangeetha (29) Embedded Processors and Automation

computers in Everyday Life Data Management Networks and Security Computers in Society
Computer are part of our everyday lives. They have an effect on almost everything you do. When you buy groceries at a supermarket, a computer is uesed with laser and barcode technology to scan the price of each item and present a total. Bacoding items (clothes, food and books ) requires a computer to generate the barcode labels and maintain the inventory. Most televison advertisiments and many films use graphics produced by a computer. In hospitals, bedide terminals connected to the hospital's main computer allow doctors to typw in orders for blood tests and to schedule operations. Banks use computers to lool after their customers' money. In libraries and bookshops, computers can help you to find the book you want as quikly as possible. Data Management is an overarching term that refers to all aspects of creating, housing, delivering, maintaining and retiring data that today adds the new contexts of compliance and the goal of managing data as a corporate asset. Data management typically addresses the creation of data architecture and is inclusive of the infrastructure, personnel, processes and other requirements for identifying, consolidating and optimizing data assets for efficiency and usefulness. Increasingly, data management falls under the rubric of data governance, a structured and role-oriented methodology for delivering dependable data assets for business decision support.

The networks are computer networks, both public and private, that are used every day to conduct transactions and communications among businesses, government agencies and individuals. The networks are comprised of "nodes", which are "client" terminals (individual user PCs) and one or more "servers" and/or "host" computers. They are linked by communication systems, some of which might be private, such as within a company, and others which might be open to public access. The obvious example of a network system that is open to public access is the Internet, but many private networks also utilize publicly-accessible communications. Today, most companies' host computers can be accessed by their employees whether in their offices over a private communications network, or from their homes or hotel rooms while on the road through normal telephone lines.

Network security involves all activities that organizations, enterprises, and institutions undertake to protect the value and ongoing usability of assets and the integrity and continuity of operations. An effective network security strategy requires identifying threats and then choosing the most effective set of tools to combat them.

Our lives have been permanently altered due to technology, especially computers. Everything we do revolves around computers. Our assignments for class are required to be typed whereas in the past they could have been hand written. Instead of people talking to their neighbors in person or even over the phone, they now can talk to them through instant message and ICQ. They can even make phone calls from the computer instead of the telephone.
Although there is a lot less actual interaction between people because of computers, they are not all bad. They allow people to talk to friends and family that are far away without having to pay the long distance phone bill. Computers also make our lives easier. In the past, grocery store cashiers had to memorize all of the prices for the products in their store. Today, the register is computerized and programmed to know the price by reading the bar code. It would be impossible for anyone to know the price of every item in today's stores. Computers also allow people to do their banking and shopping without leaving their home. Almost anything can be bought off of the internet. Colleges also offer classes online so that people do not have to travel all of the way to the school to attend class. Penn State calls this their World Campus and it is located at. Classes that would usually be canceled because the professor was out of town can be held in chat rooms. For example, when Dr. Jones had to go to New York for a conference, class was held in a chat room so that no time would be lost. All of these things have become normal in our everyday lives. However, these technologies are quite recent.
Artificial Intelligence Do you want an omelet or pancakes for breakfast? Toast or a muffin? Just place your order with Robobutler and then go take your shower. When you are ready to eat, your personal robot will serve your meal, clean up the kitchen, and remind you of your day's business appointments. As this helpful little fellow hands you your briefcase at the door, he awaits your instructions for the day; you tell him to vacuum the floor, make the beds, do the laundry, and prepare dinner. Then you get in your car, tell it to drive you to work, sit back, and enjoy the morning paper.

If you think these machines sound too good to be real, you're right. Before Robobutler and other mechanical helpers can work the way we imagine, they will need to be able to understand human language, see and react to what they see the way a person would, and perform many other human-like actions, all of which are examples of artificial intelligence. But just what is artificial intelligence? How much of this technology already exists? And who is working to develop it further?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is not defined in the same way by all who use the term because of disagreement over what intelligent behavior is. One faction within the AI community defines intelligence as the ability to cope with change and to incorporate new information in order to improve performance. Existing technologies don't appear capable of this. The broader view, however, is that artificial intelligence is that which mimics human reasoning or sensing. We already see examples of this capability in expert systems, industrial robots, machine vision, parallel processing, and neural networks, all of which are discussed below.

Because AI is hard to define, it is hard to state who works in it and to describe their occupations. Workers include researchers with advanced degrees and software designers who have a bachelor's degree in computer science with an emphasis on AI. Currently, relatively few people are engaged in developing AI products, no more than 8,000 according to knowledgeable sources. Rapid growth in demand for workers to develop this software is expected, but the number of new jobs in this area will still be relatively small.
Industrial robot An industrial robot is defined by ISO[1] as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot).

Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place, packaging and palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
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