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2nd Language

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Tesol Teach

on 29 June 2013

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Transcript of 2nd Language

The Past, Present, and Future
of Second Language Learning

Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Learning

Stage 1: Pre-Production
Stage 2: Early Production
Stage 3: Speech Emergent
Stage 4: Beginning Fluency
Stage 5: Intermediate Fluency
Stage 6: Advanced Fluency
Second Language Learning Components
Interaction for Second Language Learning

Productive Settings For E.L.L. Learners
+ Using Classroom items as a teaching tool to support second language learners.
+ Design a classroom that tackles all knowledge and maximize the ability to develope linguistic and academic skills.
+ Provide students with written and visual
supportof content for example; exposure of Pictures, graphic organizers, posters, charts,
Stages of Second Language Learning
Lev Vygotsky
Issues in 2nd Language Acquisition
True or False?

Adults learn second language more quickly and easily than young children.

In controlled research where chidlren have been compared to adults, it would found that adults and teenagers learned a second language more readily. Yes, children do outperform adults in the area of PRONUNICATION.

Critical Period Hypothesis

-The age of acquisition is an important predictor of ultimate proficiency.
-Johnson and Newport (1989, 1991) argue there is a decline acquiring a second language following puberty. This is due to changes in cognition that occur with aging.

Laterization of Brain Functions
-The human brain is divided into two hemispheres - left and right
-Scientists explore how some cognitive functions tend to be dominated by one side or the other, that is how they are lateralized.
-95% of right-handed people have left-hemisphere dominance for language
- 18.8% of left-handed people have right-hemisphere dominance for language function.

Wilder Penfield: 1891-1976
Canadian Neurosurgeon
Critical Period Hypothesis

"Before the child begin to speak and to perceive the uncommitted cortex is a blank slate on which nothing has been written. In the enduring years much is written, and the writing is normally never erased. After the age of ten or twelve, the general functional connections have been established and fixed for the speech cortex." (Penfield 1965)

Issues in 2nd
Language Acquisition

True or False?

Cognitive and academic development in native language has an important and positive effect on the second language acquisition.

Collier and Thomas found that the most important variable in second language acquisition is the amount of formal schooling the student had recieved in their first language. Non-native speakers being schooled in a second language do well in the early earys. From fourth grade on, academic and cognitive demands increase. Students with little or no academic and cognitive development in their first language do less well.

Carroll, 1964
Typically, a person learns a second language in terms of the kinds of meanings already learned in the first language. (Carroll, 1964)

Language Interference

-Interference is the transer of elements of one language into the learning of another.

"Errors in the learner's foreign language that can be traced back to the mother tongue." Lott

-Elements include: Grammatical, Lexical, Orthographical
-Many of the difficulties a second language learner has with the phonology, vocabulary and grammar of L2 are due to the interference of habits from L1. The formal elements of L1 are used within the context of L2, resulting in errors in L2, as the structures of the languages, L1 and L2 are different.


the study of sound
the study of the structure of words
the study of word order
the study of word meaning
the study of word context
Second Language Learning Components

- 5 million ELL students in the United States
- Second language learning, in particular, is of great interest to linguists

-PAST: Rote memorization and grammar-translation
-PRESENT: Research based Instruction and technology
-FUTURE: The four modules will be taught in a more natural manner

The Relationship Between
Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Morphology
The actual shape of the sign (red, 8 sides, on a stick) is its morphology.

Semantics/meaning- drivers must come to a complete stop. (unconventional semantic use --->)

Syntax- all the arrangements neccessary for the sign to have conventional meaning.

Pragmatics- what actually occurs when people interact with a stop sign.

What is the difference between:
Strategies for Increasing Language Production
- React to the content of a student's message, then correct syntax error.
- Teach language in various settings.
- Act as a language model, have students imitate what they hear.
- Use storytelling, role playing or charades to imporve verbal expression.
- Use structured language programs that provide adequate practice.
- Comment or elaborate on students' ideas to provide more information.
- Teach students the academic language along with BICS

-Student/Student interaction vs. Teacher/student interaction

-Educators should allow for the free flow of uncensored but respectful speech
- The usage of technologically advanced devices, websites and software

-Teachers must be aware of their roles in helping to shape student behavior in a positive manner.
-Cognitive development depends on social/cultural/lingustic factors

-Child not independent from culture. He/she is embedded in cultural context

-"The path from object to child and from child to object passses through another person."
B. F. Skinner
-Not all behavior is a response to enviornmental stimuli (respondant behavior)

-Nature and frequency of behavior determined by reinforcement following behavior

-Behavior that operates on the enviornment and changes it
Jean Piaget
-Believed that all children develop according to four stages based on how they see the world.
-He thought the age may vary some, but that we all go through the stages in the same order.

1. Sensori-motor (Birth-2 years)
2. Preoperational (Age 2 - Age 7)
3. Concrete Operational (Age 7- Age 11)
4. Formal Operations (Age 12-Age 15)

Noam Chomsky
- Children do not need any kind of formal teaching to learn to speak

- Children are born with a natural capacity to learn

- The brain contains systems for recognizing patterns of sound

-Chomsky's theories and "critical period" theories are important in nativist theories.
Jerome Bruner
-Like Piaget, Bruner believed that children have an innate capacity that helps them make sense of the work and that cognitive abilities develop through active interaction

-Unlike Piaget however, Bruner argued that special factors, particularly language, were important for cognitive growth. These underpin the concept of 'scaffolding'
Stephen Krashen
-Grammar structures are acquired in a predictable order

-L2 learning order is different from L1 order

-L2 learning adults and children show similar order.
Jim Cummings
Cummins makes a distinction between

social language
academic language

Some second language learners who develop fluent spoken English have difficulties in reading and writing because they may be at different levels of proficiency while they are moving from social language (BICS) to academic languag (CALP). It takes between five to seven years for second language learners to acquire academic language.

Building Effective Centers to Promote Assessment

- Set up centers for
different subject areas.
- Develope an interactive
word wall for each center.
- Centers should have
charts that summarize
key concepts and
highlighted facts learned
in the classroom.
- Use manipulatives and

adequate supplies for
students to assess.
Assessing and Endorsing Knowledge in E.L.L. Classrooms

+Design a curricular goal
+Organize strong centered
where students conduct
continuous curricular
activities to support the
learned content.
+Monitor and record activies to
measure progress.classrooms
where students.
+Use informal Methods of
assesment like performance
based assesment and
Oral Reports
Reading with partners
Role playing
creative artistic reports
Whole class report or turn and talk sharing
Written Prompts or Debates
One on One or small group conversations
Performance based assesment
Portfolio Based Assesment

Written pieces
Excersize sheets
Drawing representing students content knowledge and proficiencies.
Formal test data
Rating sheets that describes student's accomplishments.
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