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Transcript of Sport Psychology
Year 12 PE - Term 4
Sport Psychology Can help with...
Performance enhancement through mental skills training;
Anxiety management & relaxation;
Concentration & mental preparation;
Team building & leadership;
Post-performance debriefing and
Ok so now that you know what your motivation is...
what about confidence? self-esteem? Inernal or External Distractors? Stress? Ability to concentrate?
Sport Psychology, according to Amezdroz et.al is "the study of the psychological factors that influence and are influenced by participation and performance in sport, exercise and physical activity" (p.62).
In order for sport psychology to assist an athlete, they need to practice some or all of the following mental skills:
Self-Talk & Flow
Arousal & Relaxation Training;
Team Dynamics and
You'll need to refer to your textbook (Chapters 4-6) for definitions of each mental skill. You will find that different skills apply to your futsal experience and performance.
Motivation depends on goal setting!
Motivation is THE direction and intensity of YOUR effort.
Types of motivation:
Goal setting is a powerful technique for enhancing performance. There are three types of goals within sport and exercise psychology; performance goals, outcome goals and process goals (Weinberg & Gould, 2003). Process goals are those which focus on the actions, technique or process an athlete must follow to execute their skill or perform well. "Outcome goals in sport focus on achieving a victory in a competitive contest, whereas performance goals focus on achieving standards based on one's own previous performances, not the performances of others" (Weinberg & Gould, 2003., p.331).
Activity: Set yourself at least one performance goal, one process goal and one outcome goal for this term.
How/why are you motivated to achieve your futsal goals? Do you have a trait-centred view of motivation? A situation-centred view of motivation or an interactional view of motivation?
*Trait-centred: Is your primary motivation internal? You want to achieve things for yourself? You don't need others to motivate you?
*Situation-centred: Is your motivation level determined by the situation? Love futsal? Hate futsal? Motivated to play with/beat some people but not others?
*Interactional view: Does your motivation depend on a range of factors? Your personality, the situation, your teacher or coach, the weather, the oppostition?
A famous 1978 study from Canada assessed swimmers and
their performances within individual and relay events. The researchers found that some of the swimmers were oriented towards positive social approval, so swam faster in their relays. This approval-oriented personality trait meant they wanted to gain approval from their team mates, so swam faster than in their individual races. In contrast, some of the swimmers were threatened by rejection, and were overly concerned with letting their team mates down. These swimmers swam faster alone than in the relays. Overall, the learning from the study was that having the best-skilled athletes didn't guarantee having the best team.
Use the image to decide where your own motivation lies within Futsal this term. Would a different coach/teacher/team mates or an individual sport make a difference to your motivation?
(Source: Weinberg & Gould, 2003. p.55)
Or are you driven by achievement?
If you consider the goals you set earlier, have you written goals that are based on achieving excellence, mastering a task, beating others (are you competitive?!) or taking pride in personal skill? Or have you written goals that are based on avoiding failure? Be careful if your focus is on avoiding failure... as the diagram from p.62 of Weinberg & Gould shows, you may be limiting your emotional responses and ability to cope with failure.
In general, the theory of motivation achievement can be summarised in this diagram. Can you place yourself and your psychological responses to futsal within the table?
What else can you inClude in your essay?
Are you willing to try imagery in order to improve? If so, can you attribute any improvements to this mental skill?
Have you considered whether you currently use positive or negative self-talk? Can you improve or correct this?
Have you considered a performance routine? (What about for taking penalty shots?)
Within the class/your team do you give each other feedback? Is it useful? Could it be improved to enhance your personal performance?
Have you had an injury that might require application of mental skills to assist you to regain confidence?
Self-Talk can increase confidence and decrease distracting thoughts, along with reduce anxiety. Practice some positive self-talk by re-writing the negative self-talk phrases as positive ones.
a) You idiot, how could you miss such an easy shot?
b) I never play well on Fridays.
c) This referee sucks. We'll never win.
d) The coach must think I'm useless, she never talks to me or helps me.
e) We'll win this game if I can score one goal.
a) Everyone makes mistakes, concentrate your next touch.
What about arousal?
Activity... Textbook P.83
1. What impact did the different instruction have on performance?
2. What expectations did you have for Trial 2 scores before you did the test?
3. Were there any signs of anxiety before the commencement of each trial? What were the indicators?
4. The task was a simple motor skill with no decision making, explain why increasing the difficulty of the task and creating pressure for the performer would have a detrimental effect on task performance.
5. How can you relate this to your performance in futsal?
Trial 1: Alternate marking each circle with a dot for 10 seconds. Count the dots!
Trial 2: New partner. New instructions.