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Logical Fallacies In Advertisements

By: Sarah Rogers p.3 AP English
by

Sarah Rogers

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies In Advertisements

Logical Fallacies In Advertisements
Analysis of McDonalds Sign
Audience:
The audience includes people all over the world who are McDonalds costumers, those skeptical or reluctant into trying McDonald's food.
Message:
McDonalds is a common restaurant that many people eat at, so is therefore trustworthy and good.
Meant to persuade:
The message is meant to convince the audience that McDonalds is a common restaurant that many people eat at, so it is therefore trustworthy and good.
What the message says about a group in society:
Some people will participate in things just because everyone else does it, or it is the popular thing to do, without any proper reasoning or information.
Logical Fallacies used in McDonalds Sign
Bandwagon-
McDonalds displays its popularity so people will feel tempted to "join the crowd". They are using their large amount of costumers to imply that their food and service is obviously good if "99 billion" people have been served at their restaurant.
Equivocation-
The data on the sign is vague, and also very misleading. We do not know if the "99 billion served" enjoyed the food or service. We also do not know how accurate or truthful the data presented is.
Direct TV Commercial
McDonalds Sign
Minute Maid Orange Juice Commercial
AT&T Commercial: Thanksgiving
Mean Girls Movie Clip: Rules of The Plastics
Logical Fallacies: Minute Maid Orange Juice
False Authority:
Robert Loggia is a famous actor, and has no knowledge of orange juice or health matters, although he automatically gains authority and is believable to the young boy simply because he is a celebrity. Robert Loggia claims to have credibility to speak on behalf of the juice due to his fame and name.
Blind Loyalty:
It is assumed as a fact that Minute Maid Orange juice tastes good and is healthy because Robert Loggia said that is was, and since he his very famous, it must be true.
Red Herring:
The commercial uses Robert Loggia even though Minute Maid Orange Juice's taste and health benefits have nothing to do with him. There is no logical connection between Loggia and Minute Maid Orange Juice. The use of Loggia is misleading to the audience.
Analysis of Minute Made Commercial
Audience:
The audience includes people looking for a drink that is both tasty and healthy, fans of Robert Loggia, Minute Maid Juice buyers, potential and existing costumers of Minute Maid Juice.
Message:
Robert Loggia is a well known actor who approves of Minute Maid Orange Juice and supports the claim of it being rich of calcium and tasty.
Meant to persuade:
The message intends to persuade the audience into thinking that since Robert Loggia approved that Minute Maid Orange Juice is healthy and tasty, it is true and you should purchase it.
What does the message say about a group of society:
The message states that people gain credibility to speak on a subject even if they have no knowledge or experience on it, as in Loggia's case. Famous people (in this case Loggia) have the ability to be more trustworthy than close, immediate family.
Quit.org: Quit Smoking commercial
Logical Fallacies Used in Quit.org Commercial
Logical Fallacies Used in Direct TV Commercial
Slippery Slope-
The commercial states that if you don't have Direct TV you will face a minor problem, (TV not working) that will soon lead to bigger problems, (convicting wrong person, while in jail person plans revenge) and then a catastrophic end (house exploding). The sequence of events do not follow each other, and are highly unlikely to happen just simply because you do not have Direct TV.
Scare Tactics-
The commercial frightens and almost threatens viewers into believing that if they do not purchase Direct TV then they will be doomed into life threatening situations.

-
"Don't have your hose explode. Get rid of Cable, and upgrade to Direct TV."

Red Herring-
Shifts attention away from the important issue of how well Direct TV works and instead focuses on an illogical series of events that do not support reasoning as to why you should purchase Direct TV in order to receive better service. The commercial's focus to present Direct TV as something that can lead you away from danger is irrelevant to the product they are selling.
Analysis of Direct TV Commercial
Audience:
The audience of this ad include people looking into switching their TV company, any person who watches television, Direct TV users, and potential costumers.
Message:
If you do not purchase Direct TV and continue to use cable, you will face a dangerous series of events that will lead to your house exploding.
Meant to persuade:
The message is meant to persuade the audience into buying Direct TV in order to avoid dire situations.
What the message says about a group of society:
The message states that people who use cable instead of Direct TV face unpleasant situations that can be avoidable if Direct TV is used.

Analysis of Mean Girls Movie Clip
Audience:
Movie goers, adolescent or teen girls, high school students
Message:
Any member of "The Plastics" must abide to certain rules in order to be considerate and stay in the group.
Meant to persuade:
Convinces Cady that in order to be a member and a "considerate friend", she must follow these rules, even though they don't make any logical sense.

What the message says about a group in society:
Teenagers will follow illogical or insignificant rules set forth by a popular group of students just to fit in and
please them.
Logical Fallacies used in Mean Girls Movie Clip
Faulty Analogy-
Gretchen states that members have to vote before someone new sits at lunch with them, “Because you have to be considerate of the rest of the group, well I mean you wouldn't buy a skirt without asking your friends first if it looks good on you”. The comparison between buying a skirt that your friends say looks good or bad on you and being considerate is not a logical or consistent comparison.
False Dilemma:
Limited alternatives are considered when Gretchen explains the consequence of not following the rules (not allowed to sit with them at lunch, having to sit at the "freak" table). However, there are certainly more options for someone to choose from if they are in that situation.
Appeal to common practice:
In the clip Gretchen states that the rules apply to all of the girls, and since the girls who are in, and want to stay in the group follow them, so should Cady.
Appeal to Pity:
The use of a crying child instills a sympathetic response. The use of the child is fallacious because it creates pity in support of the argument. The situation presented where the child looses his mom for a short time is irrelevant to the topic of smoking and draws attention away from the issue, focusing on the emotions of the little boy.
Sentimental (Emotional) Appeals:
The commercial relies on using the crying boy as an emotional tool in order to evoke sympathy into their audience and illogically force the conclusion that parents should quit smoking.
Faulty Analogy:
The situation of a child loosing their mother in a train station has no connection or support to the argument of why you should quit smoking.
Audience:
Parents in general, smokers who have families, anti-smoking advocates.
Message:
If your child cannot handle loosing you in public for a few minutes they will not be able to handle your death, so you should quit smoking and save a loved one from hurt.
Message to persuade:
The commercial causes parents who smoke to feel bad for their children and remorseful for their actions to rethink their decision to smoke.
What the message says about a group of society:
The audience feels sympathetic and remorseful for small children who show immense sadness, even if the situation and information used in the commercial are irrelevant or illogical. The attention is taken away from the issue and the viewers focus on the child, which appeals strongly to the audience (parents) of any kind.

Logical Fallacies in AT&T Commercial
Audience:
People who own and use a phone, potential and existing AT&T users, costumers of competing phone services.
Message:
It is logical that "better is better" and in order to be better you must buy At&T's phone service, as shown in the example of bringing a pet turkey to thanksgiving ("not better") and AT&T's phone service ("better").
Meant to persuade:
The commercial is trying to convince the audience out of humor and sentimental appeals that AT&T's phone service is better. The illogical comparison used in the ad causes the audience to mistakenly identify AT&T as a better phone service, due to the confusion of the misleading conclusion.
What the message says about a group in society:
Advertisements for a product can include illogical, irrelevant information and still appeal and persuade the audience if they include humor and/or children.
At&T Commercial: Analysis
Red Herring:
The commercial is advertising for a phone service, but irrelevantly brings up the topic of "What is better at Thanksgiving". This shifts the attention away from the important issue of what is good about the phone service and why to what is better at thanksgiving and why. Thanksgiving and pet turkeys have no logical relation to At&T.
Faulty Analogy:
The commercial is comparing what is "better or not better" to do at Thanksgiving to why their phone service is "better". This is an illogical comparison because AT&T's phone service and Thanksgiving have nothing to do with each other. Also, bringing/not bringing your pet turkey to thanksgiving does not logically support the argument of At&T being a better phone service.
Sentimental Appeals:
Uses children to further draw away from the product. Phone services do not concern young children, and in this case they are used as a tool of persuasion because of their natural appeal to the hearts and interest of viewers.

Analysis of Quit.org Smoking Commercial
Logical Fallacies used in Quit.org Commercial
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The End
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