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The Impact of Technology on Future Teaching & Learning

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Philip Edwards

on 12 September 2012

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Transcript of The Impact of Technology on Future Teaching & Learning

The Impact of Technology on Future Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Understand the teaching and learning perspectives of future students
Determine how technology will be a driver of change and a facilitator to meet the learning needs of future students. Aims Background Introduction Higher Education faces a challenging future! Even today there is significant change with a demanding economic climate, new fee structures, student diversity and the impact of technology. The future environment for Higher Education will continue to face these challenges and more with changes in demographics, business requirements and transitions in society.

Changes in demographics and the fact that people are living longer with better health will lead to the percentage of the population that are over fifty increasing significantly. A consequence of this is a longer working life and people may have six or seven careers in their lifetime (Talwar & Hancocks, 2010). Having multiple careers will put more emphasis on people’s ability to continuously study and learn; in short they will have to be life-long learner.

Student expectations are likely to change as future students, across all age ranges, will have technology as an integral part of their life. People will increasingly use technology as part of their jobs and they may even be innovators of technological change themselves. Due to the pervasiveness of technology it is likely that future students will want and even demand its use in teaching and learning.

The external changes outlined (Gilbert, 2006; Talwar & Hancocks, 2010) will very possibly lead to a much more diverse cohort of students with their own needs and requirements. Managing the student experience will be very important with consideration being given not only to pedagogy/andragogy but also to the learning environment and how the learning is supported, particularly if it is increasingly done at a distance. Design Method Procedure Data Source Future external challenges for Higher Education Studies of future horizons for society and Higher Education in particular show a number of common patterns of change (Gilbert (2006), Talwar & Hancocks, (2010))

• Demographic Shifts
• Economic Turbulence
• Politics Gets Complex
• Business 3.0 – An Expanding Agenda
• Science and Technology go Mainstream
• Generational Crossroads
• Rethinking Talent, Education and Training
• Global Expansion of Electronic Media
• A Society in Transition
• Natural Resource Challenges Implications of change for Higher Education • A more diverse student body
• More part-time study at a distance through e-learning
• Competition due to fee structure
• Student Experience
• Technology as part of teaching and learning
• Ensure that people are learning the higher level skills that will enable them to continue to acquire new knowledge and take on different roles in their future careers (Talwar & Hancocks, 2010)
• Technology part of everything we do i.e. social, domestic & work. It will be pervasive and many everyday items will be connected electronically. This is known as the Internet of things (Johnson et al., 2012). Students Maintaining and improving the quality of the student experience is a key challenge for the future (Ramsden, 2008). This includes:

• Resources and infrastructure
• Flexibility of offer
• International issues
• Maintaining and enhancing student engagement
• Assessment
• Quality, standards and diversity

It is important to understand that universities and colleges do not simply react to student expectations. They shape them as well (Ramsden, 2008) The Student Experience - Challenges for the future Students today Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach (Prensky, 2001).
Digital natives like to parallel process and multi-task (Prensky, 2001). The iGeneration (those born in the 1990s and 2000s) have a predilection for using their cell phones, watching TV, playing games and listening to music simultaneously.
The minds of young students today “have changed – they have been ‘rewired’” (3) through their constant immersion in digital worlds Rosen et al. (2010). Students of the future • Young students of the future will have similar needs as the digital natives of today and expect technology to be part of learning.
• The mature students of the future are the digital natives of today. They have been rewired!
• For the vast majority of the student body technology will be an integral and essential everyday life. The Internet of things (Johnson et al., 2012), Bring Your Own Devices into the workplace (Johnson, 2012)
• Instant access culture of the Internet & digital media will produce students who expect convenience & flexibility. They will want to learn at a time and in a place convenient to them and in a way that meets their needs. Core themes for Higher Education:

Economic pressures and new models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of higher education (Johnson et. al., 2012).
Student engagement. Constructivist pedagogy, use of familiar tools such as gaming and virtual worlds, assessment and feedback
Student as a collaborator and producer. The abundance of resources and relationships made easily accessible via the Internet is increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles as educators (Johnson et. al., 2012). Technology enabling research & collaboration. Students find it natural to collaborate due to social media.
The learning environment. Future learning environments will need to be “technology rich spaces” designed to be student-centred learning facilities meeting the changing needs of pedagogy and the way student learn (Roberts & Weaver, 2006)
Widening participation - Higher Education will have to adapt to changes in demographics
Personalisation. Technology could enable a more personalised and bespoke approach to teaching and learning.

Not only the patterns of change will impact on teaching and learning but also people’s preferences for how they learn. Personalised learning will be a key aspect and will require flexibility. Students actively participating in their own learning and producing research based work will help to improve engagement. For mature students the demands of a job and career will require more flexible learning. Economic, social and demographic changes will require participation in Higher Education to be widened but people may not be able to study on the campus. The impact of technology for Higher Education The common thread is Technology A recent study by the New Media Consortium (2012) outlined the impact of a selection of future technologies on Higher Education. Improvements is Cloud Computing, Tablet & Mobile computing together with emerging Learning Analytics will make different types of study more easily available, particularly where location in not important.

Technology developments such as Gesture based computing and Augmented Reality will enable the student to participate in learning in different ways. Students will more readily be able to become producers with active participation in research. Collaborative work will become second nature as people as will be part of the conversation.

The world of work is increasingly collaborative, driving changes in the way student projects are structured (Johnson et. al., 2012)

The student as a producer - There is increasing emphasis on more challenge-based and active learning. Can technology deliver this? Students involved in gaming outside of studies, will they participate as part of studies?

An abundance of resources and relationships will be easily accessible via the Internet enabling students to construct their own knowledge. Increasingly this will challenge us to re-evaluate our roles as educators and our approaches to teaching. Today, technology is enabling us to achieve things that twenty years ago were unimaginable. Technology as a driver of change Education paradigms are shifting to include online learning, hybrid learning and collaborative models (Johnson et. al., 2012).

The pervasiveness of technology in the future will mean that it will be present in most of our day to day activities. Students of the future will expect it to be an everyday part of teaching & learning

Educators need to further develop technologies for flexible personalised learning
Organisations need to provide access to more Cloud based resources to reduce the cost of provision and improve development speed. Do not re-invent the wheel
Educators need to develop ways in which students can use their own technological devices in learning and assessment
Use new tools to monitor and measure the student experience
Develop technologies to enable the student to more easily and effectively produce knowledge as part of their learning Technology as a facilitator Technological change will be one of the many future challenges faced by Higher Education. This is happening today and the process of continual change will continue. To survive Higher Education needs to keep pace with that change.
Nearly all students from the youngest to the more mature will be digital natives and as such will expect to use and experience technology an integral part of learning. For future students, technology will be an essential part of their life.
New technologies will be an enabler and facilitator in improving engagement, widening participation and improving the student experience. It will allow students to learn what they want, when they want, where they want and how they want.
Technology can be a driver for change by using the latest developments to effectively complement the pedagogy/andragogy. Used in innovative ways it can open up new approaches to teaching and supporting the student.
Student experience is a key aspect and they should be central to the future development, innovation and adoption of technology for teaching and learning. Conclusion In the next twenty years or more technology will enable us to make advances in teaching and learning that are unimaginable today.

Developments in teaching and learning driven by technology must align with the needs of the student and enhance delivery in a viable way for the organisation.

Teaching staff of the future will also be digital natives who will embrace the technology to bring about change.

Organisations need to have structures enabling them to react quickly to new possibilities.

Educators need to be innovative in developing new digital learning environments that engage and motivate the student Review of current literature and articles Research Papers, Books, Journal and Internet articles that explore the future of Higher Education, future technologies and the future use of technology in teaching and learning.

Boolean Search Terms:
Future Higher Education
Technology Higher Education
Future Technology
Learning Spaces
Student Experience

Eighteen sources of literature were included in this review. Ten of these were empirical studies, employing a range of research methods including: survey, qualitative exploration and cases studies for the assessment of the future of Higher Education and future use of technology. What technologies will be available?
Augmented Reality
Gesture Based Computing
Cloud Computing
Learning Analytics
Tablet & mobile computing References Anderson, P. (2007), ‘What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for education’, JISC Technology and Standards Watch, [Online] www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf [Accessed 21/08/2012]
Bell L., Neary M. and Stevenson H. (2009). ‘The Future of Higher Education: Policy, Pedagogy and the Student Experience’, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.
Cope J. (2009). ‘We need to connect with young people using technology’. The Independent [Online] http://blogs.independent.co.uk/2012/06/19/we-need-to-connect-with-young-people-using-technology/ [Accessed 20/08/2012]
Eastwood K. (2010). ‘Virtual Worlds’. Public Sector Nomads [Online] http://publicsectornomads.com/blog/2010/03/20/virtual-worlds/ [Accessed 20/08/2012]
Gilbert C. (Editor) (2006). ‘ 2020 Vision: A VISION FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN 2020’, The Teaching and Learning Review Group, DfES Publications, Nottingham
Glenn M. (D’Agostino D. Editor) (2008). ‘The future of higher education: how technology will shape learning’, The Economist Intelligence Unit, London
Hordern J. (2012). ‘The student as producer within a productive system’, The Higher Education Academy.
Johnson D. (2012). ‘Key considerations for the bring-your-own-device dilemma’. The Guardian [Online]http://www.guardian.co.uk/media-network/media-network-blog/2012/jun/06/bring-your-own-device-dilemma [Accessed 21/08/2012]
Hilton J. (2006). The Future for Higher Education: Sunrise or Perfect Storm?, Educause Review (March/April 2006 p59-71)
Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). ‘The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition’, The New Media Consortium, Austin, Texas, USA
McKinney L. (2009). Augmented Reality (AR): Will It Change Your Life? Tech World Says "Yes", The Daily Galaxy [Online] http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/07/augmented-reality-ar-overlaying-the-information-age-on-the-real-world.html [Accessed 20/08/2012]
Prensky M. (2001). ‘Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants’, From On the Horizon, MCB University Press (Vol. 9 No. 5, October 2001)
Ramsden P. (2008). ‘The Future of Higher Education Teaching and the Student Experience’ [Online] http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/consultations/paulramsden_teaching_and_student_experience.doc [Accessed 21/08/2012]
Roberts, S and Weaver, M (2006). 'SPACES FOR LEARNERS AND LEARNING: EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY-RICH LEARNING SPACES', New Review of Academic Librarianship, 12: 2, 95 — 107
Rosen L.D., Carrier L.M. and Cheever N.A. (2010). ‘Rewired: Understanding the iGeneration and the Way They Learn’, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, USA
Talwar R., Hancock T. (2010). ‘The shape of jobs to come: Possible New Careers Emerging’ from Advances in Science and Technology (2010 – 2030).
Temple P. (2007). ‘Learning spaces for the 21st century: A review of the literature’, The Higher Education Academy
Watling s. (2012): Student as producer and open educational resources: enhancing learning through digital scholarship, The Higher Education Academy. Workspace Design Magazine (http://workspacedesignmagazine.com/2010/11/mediascape-is-designed-for-people-technology-and-fun/) McKinney, (2009) The Telegraph (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/athletics/9405113/London-2012-Olympics-Games-legend-Michael-Johnson-believes-Oscar-Pistorius-has-an-unfair-advantage.html) MICROS eCommerce (http://blog.microsecommerce.com/index.php/uncategorized/eye-on-the-industry-the-next-wave-in-the-mobile-boom-are-you-ready/) New Media Consortium (http://navigator.nmc.org/clipping/softkinetic-previews-next-gen-gesture-interfaces-video) Eastwood, (2010) Cope, (2009) Art 21 (http://blog.art21.org/2011/08/04/the-artist-is-prescient-relational-aesthetics-and-augmented-reality/) ERIC, EThOS, Emerald, JSTOR, Higher Education Academy, Google, Staffordshire University Blackboard. Key Points from Literature Challenges within Higher Education Learning environment
Widening participation
Improving quality of teaching and learning
The student engagement/experience
The student as a producer
Technology enhanced learning
Flexibility of offer Philip Edwards Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science
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