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Diasporic Communities?

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Sponge Chicken

on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of Diasporic Communities?

Diasporic Communities
Muslim Merchants in Indian Ocean Region
Who were they:

During the time that the Sogdians were on the Silk road they influenced it so much that The Inland silk road and “Sogdian trading network” were synonymous. The language for the silk road became Sogdiana, which was the language of the Sogdians.

While Islam took its routes in Sogdian peoples, their trade with China made Buddhism an influential religion. They spread it around while traveling the silk road and many neighboring countries were introduced to Islam in this way.

Sogdian Background
Who were the Sogdians:
The Sogdians were Eastern Iranian people
who were a big part in trade in the silk road. Their
main target was China but they ended up being known for their trading work in Inner Asia. They resided in modern day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Chinese Merchant Communities in South East Asia
-Through the extensive usage of trade routes, Chinese merchants were able to diffuse Chinese cultural traditions, practices, and beliefs.
-Because of the widespread integration and commerce in SE Asia, it allowed Chinese Merchants to safely and efficiently spread beliefs and traditions.
Chinese Influence on Korea
-Through the financial expeditions led on by Chinese Merchants, these merchants were able to diffuse Chinese culture into Korea.
-Buddhism, Chinese language and writing, Chinese bureaucracy and political structure, Chinese educational systems, the ideologies of Confucianism and Daoism, art, manufactured goods, were all results of Chinese interactions with Korea.
Chinese influence on Vietnam
-Unlike many other unified areas, Vietnam was the most difficult to influence from China.
-Due to heavy geographic boundaries (such as mountains), Vietnam remained highly independent from China and other countries.
-Chinese merchants influenced Vietnam in the areas of Chinese bureaucracy and political structure, the Confucianism examination structure, Buddhism, and Chinese writing and speech.
Chinese Influence on Japan
-Because of advances in maritime technology, Chinese merchants could travel far out to sea to interact with neighboring lands, like Japan.
-Through interaction with China, Japan was influence by Chinese writing, language, education systems, ideology (Confucianism and Daoism), Buddhism, educational systems, and political structure and bureaucracy.
-Because of Japan's isolated nature from the rest of SE Asia, however, they grew the most independent over time. They also very much retained their own culture. For instance the political structure of Feudalism, or their indeginous religion of Shintoism
Chinese Merchant influence in SE Asia Conclusion
-Overall, because of Chinese Merchant movements to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, SE Asia shares many similar roots to their cultures and traditions.

-Because of geographical boundaries, not only was it more difficult to spread the Chinese culture, but it also allowed for Korea, Vietnam, and Japan to develop my independently to the countries they are today.

Applications to World History
-The longstanding effect of the influence of these Chinese merchants is that of why we see SE Asian culture and relationships the way they are today.
-Also, these merchants helped give the widespread diffusion of Buddhism, which played a large effect on Asian government and social conduct.

The Three Communities:
-Muslim merchant communities in Indian Ocean region
- Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia
-Sogdian merchant communities in Central Asia
They were islamic merchants who had come from Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula. Many had left for reasons such as population pressures and poltical upheaval but the main reason for the establishment of these diasporic communities was for trade.
These communities were majorly located in the Indian ocean region, increasing the influence of islamic culture and allowing the muslims dominate trade dominating trade, which was at the time centralized around the Indian ocean.
Trading Communities:
Muslims developed many innovations that increased trade throughout the Indian Ocean region. The creation of dhows and junks, which were huge cargo ships, allowed the movement of thousands of tons of cargo throughout the indian ocean region.

Trading communities were located all along the Silk road, the sogdians mainly traded Slaves, Silk, Silver, and a few more.
Why were they so successful?
The Sogdians were basically in the perfect area to facilitate trade. They were located in a spot which made China to the East, India to the south and the Steppes to the north. They had good land connections and were able to move through the lands withe Caravans.

Influence to China
Their starting goal was to trade with China but what they did was more then trade. Sogdians influenced China in many ways such as promoting Buddhism, influencing their style of dress and they established trading colonies in China dealing in commodities such as gold, silver, camphor, pepper and other spices, musk, wheat, silk, and other kinds of cloth during this time period.
Influence to Turks
Sogdian influence is not very hard to see in this region, the Sogdian alphabet was used at one point, and the earliest known scripts of text for the Turks were written in Sogdian. They Sogdians also brought Buddhism here. They also had control of the commerce in the Turk empire which enabled them to dominate trade in East Turkestan.
How were the Sogdians influenced?
Many Sogdians who started living in Asian regions became integrated with the Chinese society and culture. They adopted Chinese funerary practices and bought mingqi and ceramic vessels of value in the Chinese culture.

Sogdians who were not completely influenced.
Sogdians who were not completely influence by outside forces still practiced Zoroastrianism and , unlike the Sogdians who integrated into Chinese society, did not burry their dead.
Chinmayi's Citations
Eduljee, K. E. (2005). Sogdian trade. Retrieved from http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/sugd/trade.htm
ENCYCLOPÆDIA , I. (2013). Sogdian trade. Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdian-trade
Skaff, Johnathan. “Trade Diaspora in East Turkestan during the Seventh and Eighth Centuries.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 46 (2003): 475-524.

De La Vaissière, Étienne. Sogdian Traders: A History. Trans. James Ward. Boston: Brill, 2005. Print.

Lerner, Judith A. “The Merchant Empire of the Sogdians.” Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China Gansu and Ningxia, 4th -7th Cent. Ed. by A.L. Juliano and J. Lerner. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., with the Asia Society, 2002. 221-227. Print.

Luo, Feng. “Sogdians in Northwest China.” Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China Gansu and Ningxia, 4th -7th Cent. Ed. By A.L. Juliano and J. Lerner. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., with the Asia Society, 2002. 239-245. Print.

Marshak, Boris I. “The Sogdians in their Homeland.” In Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China Gansu and Ningxia, 4th -7th Cent. Ed. By A.L. Juliano and J. Lerner. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., with the Asia Society, 2002. 231-237. Print.
tolgakolcak. (2011, April 4). The sogdians of the silk road. Retrieved from http://silkroadsogdians.blogspot.com/
Cultural Diffusion
The most important result of the Muslim diasporic communities was the blending of culture between the different regions. Islam took hold in the lower class of India and had strong foot holds in large indian ports. Merchants also adopted the Hindu caste system by creating new merchants sub castes or jatis. This diffusion resulted in the split between religious beliefs that we see in this region today.
By: Alexander Hoang, Jacob Hourihan, and Chinmayi
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