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How organisations use ICT 1

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MJ Franco

on 30 December 2013

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Transcript of How organisations use ICT 1

How organisations use ICT 1
Control systems
Working practices
Teaching & learning
Data management
Publishing
Advertising
Payroll applications
Technical & customer support
Art & design work
Air-conditioning system
Car manufacture
Medical applications
A system that uses microprocessors to control certain physical conditions or either varying according to pre-defined values. The physical conditions are controlled by the computer by microprocessors that are: Temperature, pressure, humidity and moisture.
Process control
Teleworking
Remote working
Office-based working
Videoconferencing
- It's a close system with coils that contain chemical liquid that can be converted from liquid to gas and again to liquid. This chemical is called refrigerant.


- Computer-controlled robots, they are used in many manufacturing industries
-They work by an actuator= an electric motor with a direct current and makes it spin or an stepper motor that moves in minute steps and it's easier to control with a computer, e g. robot arm.
-They can change the end effector of the arm robot and instructions to do different jobs.
-To show the robot how to do the job, it can be done by a programmer that guides the arm and the movements are record or by remote control and they are recorded.
This unit we explore the different ways a job can be done with the use of ICT.
-Also known as working from home. This process of working started in the year 2005.
-The teleworkers communicate with the central office by broadband or a virtual private network(VPN).
-To work from home they must have: computer, fax machine, landline phone & mobile phone and a printer
-This has advantages for the company and employee and disadvantages to it as well:
-When people work at a distance from the main office, for example traveling salesmen or whilst being on a temporary job.

-The workers need PDAs, mobile phones and laptop with wireless networking capability.

-With a laptop or mobile phone the salesmen can access to the computer of their boss by a remote access service (RAS).
They help students and teachers to create new working styles as they would need multimedia materials.
There are 6 types of support learning:

CAI: Computer aided instructions
+ It replaces the teacher using computer software.

+The computer leads all the learning process.

+ It is easier for the student to work with a computer as they can go at the speed they need to.

+ Normally the students will do tests and the computer will get a record of their grades and evaluating how the student is working throughout the year.
CAL: Computer aided learning
* CAL or CBL are new methods of looking up for information using a computer.
* This time the teacher controls the computer not as CAI.
* It normally helps the student to make researches for class.
* They are:
-computer
-DVD players
-projectors
-televisions or monitors
CMC: Computer mediated communications
^It's used by the students to send emails or instant messages to the teacher if they have any doubt, so therefore the teacher can solve any problem that the students may have.
CAA: Computer aided assessment
+This helps the teacher to correct tests or exams. there are two types of assessments: Summative and Formative.

+Summative= ask questions and recorded the answers to them.

+Formative= it uses the answer to a question and outputs that answer to highlight the points that the student went wrong.

+To correct multiple choice papers the teacher uses an OMR, where it records the marks on pencil.
Record keeping
^The use of spreadsheets to record the results of the tests made by students.

^After recording them, they are normally stored on a graph or a table.
types of advertising
methods of advertising
Product advertising
Business advertising
Service advertising
-It normally advertises a product to an undefined audience, although loads of publicity nowadays is made for a certain audience of a determined age.

-The publicity can be spread out by adverts on a newspaper to a pop-up advert on the internet due to new technologies.
-The business usually use the adverts to get the people to know them.

-They have catchy names so the audience remember them.

-By doing this the advert will reach to the target audience.
-Here the company wants to attract the audience by showing them the advantages that they would have if they hire their services.
-For example: insurance, government, social services, education, tourism, banking, etc...
-Private businesses make sure the audience know for what they are going to pay whilst in public businesses only make sure the information about the product reaches the audience.
Advantages to the company
-They don't have to spend money on renting areas as less working space is needed.
-They can have workers all over the world.
Advantages to the employee
They can mix working time and leisure time having therefore more leisure time completing the hours that the are meant to.
Disadvantages to the company
-They have to find a worker who is disciplined, well motivated, can distribute it's time well and has got good communications.
-They may have to employ another worker to teach the others how to use certain programs.
Disadvantages to the employee
-As they work at home, they can get easily distracted from by family members or friends who come to visit.
-Employees working on different sectors on an office, such as the attention to the client.
-Many of the companies think that their workers will not work well enough at home and therefore they prefer having them working on an office.
-To work on an office it is required a desktop computer connected to a LAN or WLAN, internet facilities and printers.
This is an example of a private service.

Websites
Advertising on others people website
Multimedia presentations
Flyers
Posters
-It is a modern and cheap way of advertising things.

-The organizations nowadays have their own website.

-The website normally is easy to navigate and to make it even easier the organizations will upload videos, photos, or sound effect to help the user more attracted to it.
It is easier for most organizations to advertise themselves on another website as a pop-up or a little window appearing at the bottom of your screen, they might appear before entering on the page you have selected.


+Before entering some webs or watching videos on you tube most of the times an advert in video form will appear. This advert is on a multimedia form to catch the users attention.
+It's more efficient as it is easier to replace than a normal advert.
+They are normally a page leaflet that has to catch the attention of the audience, so usually they are very bight and have a catchy slogan and a logo.

+These generally advertise a small commerce like a hardware store, conferences, music festivals or concerts.
It's a large print that advertises a service or product.
Images and text are combined to catch the attention of the people.
Robots rather than humans
+They have grater accuracy.
+They cost less than paying a person.
+They don't get tired.
+They can work in hazardous conditions.
+They can work for long periods of time.
+They don't need holidays.
This computer control is used in two major medical applications:
Intensive care
*When a patient is in intensive care they are monitored by sensors as blood pressure, pulse rate & body temperature.

*The computer has a pre-set value where the feed back of the patient is compared and if any of them falls the computer will make an alarm sound to alert the doctors.

*By the use of this sensors makes the process more accurate and lets the nurses carry out other tasks whilst the patient is OK.
Surgery
*The use of cameras and robotic arms inside the patients body.
*This is an effective method to see if something is going wrong inside the patients body.
*The robotic arm or camera that is introduced inside the patient is connected to a joystick or console so therefore it does everything that the doctor orders.
*It's a benefit as it is very accurate and the surgery is done on the correct place making the patient to recover quicker and therefore it doesn't occupy any hospital bed.
The use of microprocessors or computer to control a process. e g. oil refining, chemical processing, car manufacture, temperature control and food or beverages industries.
Batch process control
Continuous process control
There's a large range of activities that involve art and design works.
- Companies that work in this business use computers with a large storage capacity and with an appropriate graphics software.
- Most commonly known as image-editing software. this means that it can :

+crop
+rotate and flip
+draw lines and geometric shapes
+add text with different fonts
+look at 3D views

-The software must need a facility to store libraries of designs and therefore they can be used over and over again. They manipulate the images with a mouse.
They involve the use of batch processing as each file that is needed is stored on different magnetic tapes.
-There are two data files where the data is store: 1. Master file (it holds all the information about the workers) 2. transaction file (temporary file which contains the changes that are going to occur on the master file.)
-Due to these processes a new master file is created.
-The transaction file has to be in the same order as the master file.
Payslips
* It contains information that may be found on the master and transaction files as an employee number, the pay rate per hour, etc...
* To create a payslip the information of the master file and the transaction file must be linked as they both contain the employee number and the hours they worked.
Financial reports
* the payroll software has a report generator program which lists a detailed payroll and exception reporting.
Typical reports:
Information about all the employees
Information about the salaries of all employees
National insurance contribution to employees
National insurance payed to the tax authorities
Income tax that each employee has payed
The amount of tax paid to the authorities
All the earnings and deductions of all the employees
A summary of all the total earnings and deductions of each department.
Exception reports:
An employee earning an unusually large amount of money
An employee who has been on the emergency tax code for a long period of time
2 employees having the same National insurance number
this means that some reports, a certain validation rule has been broken creating an error on this report.
some examples may be the following ones:
data from master file
new master file
transaction file
data from master file
Data calculated during the update process
+It's used in a specific process where there is a certain amount of raw materials that have to be mixed during a period of time.
+This process is normally used to conserve food until it is consumed as on the box of the product gives you the instructions of the temperature and the last day it has to be consumed.
+The batch process is generally used to produce small amounts of a product each year.
*A never-ending process. E g. maintaining the temperature on a surrounding (refrigeration plant)
*Also a paper or a petroleum machine are in continuous use as large quantities of these products are used each year.
This process is used when an specific product is created.
they work as a start/stop robots. E g. to create a car the robots are used to do specific jobs, as an example to place a wheel on a car. Once it's done the robot stops until the next car arrives so he can do his job at the same speed and position as the one before.

Discrete process control
*Programmable logic controller (PLC)= this is a microcomputer or computer which accepts analogue and digital inputs and compares them to a pre-set value, then depending on the result the outputs will be activated.


*Programmable-integral-derivative (PID)= it is an algorithm and it is used with a closed-loop control systems. A closed-loop system is one which a physical variable is being continuously monitored using a sensor connected to a PLC and giving an output. PID is the best way of making this and in many other versions of control software.
EWT
Embedded web technology (EWT) is a technology developed by NASA. It's used to make the experiments on the space conduced by any authorized worker at anywhere in the world. This technology combines the Internet or worldwide web and a real-time system to control the EWT.

The embedded system is a mixture of microprocessors, input sensors, output actuators and a specific software needed to control them.
It is like a normal conference.
To make a video conference you'll need a:
A PC
A monitor
Speakers
a network connection
A web cam
A microphone
and usually a videoconferencing software

The video conferences are used in many companies to negotiate with other businesses at the other side of the world. It is a good method because less money and time is spent on flights.
Phone conferencing
-To link several peoples phone lines so they can maintain a collective conversation or by using VOIP (Voice over IP).
-To make this conference work each person has a personal ID or PIN.
-The person that starts the conference must have a special PIN to get the conference started and ad the participants to the conference by inputting their PIN numbers.
Instant messaging
-This is the exchange messages and between two persons where the messages are replied immediately.

-To do this you'll need a used name and a password.

-Once you've got an account you can add your contacts and chat with them.
Faxing
-It is used to scan documents and send them through the phone lines to another fax machine. They need a modem so that the transmission of thew fax is faster.
-Most organisations nowadays use an "all-in-one" printer.
loads of fax machines have been replaced by the e-mail or other internet communication facilities.
Electronic faxing
New software have been invented as instead of printing a document and sending it by the phone lines, now you can send the fax through the telephone lines to be printed.
Advantages of electronic faxing
It saves time as it doesn't have to print and send.
Equipment costs are lower as they don't have to pay for a fax machines.
Running costs are lower as there's no need for a fax line to be installed.
Confidential faxes are secure compared to a manual fax.
There's no need to be on an office to receive a fax as the can be controlled and downloaded distantly.
This service is provided by companies and they are normally 24/7 opened as they have operators spread throughout the world.
-To work the operators need a computer each one and need to be connected to the phone line of the company.
-They'll need a telephony communication switch so then many people can access the line at the same time, this can be done by a Computer telephony integration (CTI).
-They use a interactive voice response system (IVR) to pick the calls and queue them by the CTI.

2 CTI Software forms
First-party call control
Third-party call control
+It allows the operator to have a direct connection between their computer and phone. this means that the computer can control the phone .

+This software is most suitable with small call centres.
+ Used in large calling centres as they need a dedicated telephony server to connect the phone to the computer network.
+ As the operators phone is connected to the computer, it allows the server to control where are all the phones.
+The phone isn't virtually connected to the computer, but any computer in the network can control any phone that is connected
Calling centres are normally situated on Asia as the working hand is lower than on Europe. E g. India, Bangladesh, etc.
Some workers have difficulty to understand English dialects, so having a calling centres abroad is less flexible and therefore they have to follow a script.
Sequential files
Index sequential and random access files
Hierarchical database management systems
Network database management systems
Relational database systems
Database system is a collection of related data. It's simplest form is a collection of records and fields. Each record contains the same amount of fields. A Database management system (DBMS) is a software to use them. It helps to make relationships between data items and data files, how data is interrogated and the properties of the database (queries, updating and amendments to structure are processed reliably).
There is no order but the one they were added on the storage medium.
2 ways in which the records can be arranged in:
1. sort of order using the key field (key field= unique identifier, this means that each record has one) this is called ordered
2. unordered this is like a serial file as you have to go one by one through all the records to get to the one you want.
Process of records in sequential files
Adding records to the end of the file is easy but changing a record or deleting it is much more complicated.
To do this you have to get the master file and create a transaction file with the records you want to delete or change. On the transaction file there must be a column where it has a C for change or a D for delete or an A for addition.
With this information a new master file is created with all the changes made.
They are stored in order. It is normally stored on a disk to provide direct access to the place you want. Each record has a personal fixed length on each field. the index is a pointer where it goes for example from A-Z if you are looking for a name that starts with M it automatically jumps from A to L so you begin from the M.
Random access is useful as it doesn't matter where the record is, the computer looks it up and identifies the key field and goes directly to the record you were looking for.
They are no longer used in a form of file management as they can only have a one-way relationships. It uses like tree form relationship where a few files are at the top and it goes splitting up into different ones. Folders can have lots of folders below, but they can only come from one folder.
These were developed to overcome a lot of faults of the hierarchical type. This form is still used so that many distributed database systems. Some parts of the database are normally stored on a number of computers that are linked through WAN or LAN. It also duplicates the database so therefore it's unlikely to loose data. The users on the network can access to the database without affecting the speed of accessing data.
Different tables that are related some way. each table has a key field that is a field on another table creating a relationship when producing a report, this is done by using (SQL).
the advantages of using a relational database is that storage capacity isn't wasted.
The problem with flat files is that they may repeat data throughout many different tables.

Typesetting
transmitting completed pages
computerised plate making
Printing
ICT has affected the way the newspapers are produced as now the correspondents send their stories by e-mail to the editorial office.

Once this is done the articles are edited to create the layout and then it's proofread for accuracy.

The settings of the layout of the typed page. this has to be done so that it's easier to read: font size or kerning: spacing between letters, line length, body text length.
Once the editor is happy with the layout it has to send the pages to the printing plant, there are 2 main ways to do this:
1. The page is printed and the image of the page is burned onto light-sensitive film. The film is placed on a fax machine and transferred to a printing plant.
2. Lots of editors have more than one printing plant, therefore they send by digital or fax form that is sent to a satellite which prints on various printing plants simultaneously.
Images from the negatives are transferred using ultraviolet light that allows to pass through the film to expose a printing plate. These plates are exposed to light until a chemical reaction occurs, that allows a light-sensitive coating on the aluminium to develop the image.
The aluminium has to be fixed to the plate process. it consists of 3 rollers. The aluminium plate is flexible and therefore it bends around it.
The most common way of printing a newspaper is called web offset lithography. (offset= the roller doesn't touch the paper) the 1st roller attaches the ink onto the 2nd roller which is rubberised and onto the 3rd roller which is the one containing the paper.
Web Offset Lithography
Approaches to good time managements
Organisations think that is necessary to keep up with a determined finish date. This can be done by bringing experts on a specialised department as they can make good practice and attending to courses to gain qualification in this area.
Features of time management:
Use of software packages in time managements
Several software companies fight with other to gain businesses based on time management software.
There are also some packages where that can be built in many computers to help the workers to handle a task on a determined rate of time.
Organising meeting times
Organiser packages that come with e-mail as organasing your contacts or the mails or the calendar function. The calendar function helps the user to keep a record on their appointments.
On a network a public calendar can be created to make appointments.
Arranging workload
Business software is used to carry the calendar, the time scale, Gantt charts, etc.
-Gantt Charts are used to research and develop many aspects as they can help to plan out the tasks that are involved in a determined process.

-Sequential activities Vs. Parallel activities.

-Due to the Gantt chart a process can be finished by 5 days, so the manager would change some little things that may take the process less time for the product to be finished.


Research & development of projects
Time management
The ability to manage the time you spend doing a task as now lots of organisations are starting to think about this skill. This is a skill that is developed to achieve success even if they are under a great pressure.
Some people find it difficult to use their time wisely so therefore they wait it.
Time management is finding the most profitable way of doing a job without wasting any time.
Time management applies to all aspects of businesses such as: writing documents, providing services or taking decisions.
Identifying shorts
* Also known as long-term targets.
*The need to appreciate the point of a project to take them in order to get there, these are short-term targets.
*These short-term targets are proved to be motivational when the work is finished.
Prioritising
*To finish the project during the time allowed, is important to set targets that aren't related to each other.

*Deciding on the importance of each target and giving the appropriate resources to achieve each target.
Planning
Decision making
Use of ICT
Organisations have realised that no time is wasted and the production is more effective where there has been a plan done before hand.
Making the correct decision is always important and it affects the whole project as sometimes it takes time to select the right decision.
Usually the organisations benefits by the use of software and hardware such as fax machines or the e-mail.
There are a number of software which work as stopwatches. The user can click on a specific task and the computer will remind them of how much time is left and how long it took to do the task. The manager will calculate approximately how much time is needed to complete the task, as well as he makes sure that there is a fair amount of work between every worker due to the plan he previously made.
Construction project management
-This method of project is now applied to many other.
It involves a critical path method that finds out the least time the project would need to be entirely complete.
-The critical path is the order in which the tasks have to be completed.
-The software created for managements help to see the progress being made with the specific sub-projects and it also helps with weekly planning.
Is normally used to cool a room, this is done by a set of coils at the outside of the building and another set inside it. The cool low-pressures gas is compressed onto a hot high-pressure gas. The condenser cools the gas turning it into liquid that flows through the piping and passes onto a expansion valve causing the liquid to evaporate and then being absorbed into the building where a fan will blow the cold air across the room.
Most systems have a temperature sensor and it compares it to a pre-set value. The air conditioning will be turned on if the room is too warm.
Air conditioning
Central-heating system
Nowadays the heating of a house is done by the use of water. The main parts of the system are : boiler, water cylinder and pumps. The water is boiled in the water cylinder and flows through the pumps to the radiators of the building.
PUMP
BOILER
WATER CYLINDER
TOUCH SCREEN
MICROPROCESSOR
RADIATOR
Refrigeration
It works like the air conditioning system. The condensing unit is at the back of the refrigerator and the evaporating is inside it. The main inputs are temperature sensor as it controls the temperature inside the refrigerator, pressure sensor to control if the door is opened or not.
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