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05.07 Discussion-Based Assessment
Transcript of 05.07 Discussion-Based Assessment
by Ryan Bjornholt
1. Why did England develop constitutional monarchy while absolute monarchies ruled in France, Spain, and Russia?
England had developed a constitutional monarchy because the kings were abusing power. The Petition of Rights was used by Parliament to limit King Charles I. It stated that the king could not use martial law to make decisions without Parliament's approval. Charles l went along with the petition to get the money but later on he had dismissed Parliament for a second time.
2. Describe how scientific theories and methods of the Scientific Revolution challenged those of the early classical and medieval periods.
The Scientific Revolution was considered a revolution because of the major changes brought about. Along with the Renaissance, it marked the beginning of the new modern world. Philosophers began to think more scientifically. They used accurate measurements to prove their work, which was a new concept during the Renaissance.
4. Identify and explain 3 major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.
- Francis Bacon: Inductive reasoning
3. Identify and explain 3 major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.
Nicholas Copernicus: Had challenged the previous theories of a geocentric universe. His new theory stated that the sun was actually the center of the universe instead of Earth. This was the heliocentric theory. This was frowned upon by the church.
Francis Bacon: He had came up with an inductive theory. Instead of jumping to a conclusion, he suggested to research and test and conclude based off of the results.
Johannes Kepler: Was interested in the relationships between numbers and the properties of things in the natural world. Kepler used a telescope to determine that the planets moved around the earth, not in circles. He discovered that planets move faster as they approach the sun and slower as they move away. He also discovered that the distance of a planet from the sun determined how long it took for that planet to go around the sun. He created the three laws of planetary motion.
4. Identify 3 major scientific figures of the 20th century.
James Watson and Francis Crick (Medicine and Biology): James and Watson Crick found that DNA is in the shape of a double helix in 1953.
Orville and Wilbur Wright (Transportation). Orville and Wilbur Wright created the first successful airplane in 1903.
Sigmund Freud and Karl Jung (Medicine and Biology): Freud, an Austrian psychologist is most known for his research on the mind and for founding a type of therapy known as psychoanalysis.
5. What impact do scientific breakthroughs have on our lives today?
Scientific breakthroughs have improved our everyday modern lives for only the better. For example, 150 years ago people did not automated vehicles and had to walk/ride horses everywhere. Now that cars have improved immensely, it takes a fewer amount of time to travel places.
6. Identify the major causes of the Enlightenment.
Influenced by Greco-Roman ideals, the Renaissance had created the foundation of the philosophy of humanism and its focus on the individual. The Reformation challenged the traditional authority of the Church and furthered the ideas of individualism. In addition, the Scientific Revolution promoted observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the analysis of cause and effect.
Thomas Hobbes claimed that the human race was selfish due to nature. The natural state of mankind, according to Hobbes, was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
David Hume believed that desire- not reason, governed the human's behavior.
Adam Smith and Hume shared beliefs. Smith's first piece work was called "The Theory of Moral Sentiments". In this novel, he tried to answer the important question, "What is the basis of human morality?" He claims that morality derives from a feeling of sympathy between the person who completes an action and the onlooker.
7. Summarize 3 major ideas of Enlightenment philosophers.
8. What impact did Napoleon have on France and Europe?
France: Napoleon had impacted France by creating a new and different government. His influence has impacted many worldwide.
Europe: Napoleon had a tremendous impact on European society. He had made reforms in the educational and judicial fields of France. He also turned France into a strong military country, which lead to multiple invasions by Napoleon and his mighty army in other countries in Europe.
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