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Alternative ENERGY sources
Transcript of Alternative ENERGY sources
SOURCES Fast flowing water :
building a dam across a valley
below a lake HEP TIDAL BIOMASS Renewable resources Biogas Definition: they are mainly forces of nature which can be used over and over again DEFINITION: They are mainly forces of nature which can be used over and over again. HEP WIND WAVE TIDAL GEOTHERMAL BIOGAS BIOMASS Wind turbines (modern windmills) turn wind energy into electricity They can be found singularly Or on a wind farm They do not cause air pollution Disadvantages Noise pollution
They can interrupt radio and TV reception
Wind is necessary and it does not blow all the time
Spoils the scenery It is limited to volcanic areas
The cost of construction is high
Threats of eruptuion and earthquakes are always present DISADVANTAGES Pollution free
Constant supply ENERGY SOURCES WE NEED THEM WE USE THEM WE EXHAUST THEM The movement of tides drives turbines.
A tidal barrage (a kind of dam) is built across estuaries, forcing water through gaps. Construction of barrage is very costly.
It destroys wildlife habitats.
Could disrupt local shipping.
The tides only happen twice a day, so can only produce electricity for that time. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Potential to generate a lot of energy.
Tidal barrage can double as a bridge, and help prevent flooding.
Tides are free once the power station has been built and will not run out.
No greenhouse gases are produced when we make the electricity.
We know exactly when the tides happen so we know when electricity will be made. The movement of seawater
in and out of a cavity on the shore
compresses trapped air,
driving a turbine. Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity.
You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land.
Construction can be costly.
May be opposed by local or environmental groups. Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station.
Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases.
There are very few safety risks with wave power generation. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES When the fuel is burned greenhouse gases are made which pollute the environment.
Sometimes people grow biomass crops where we could grow food.
We may not have enough space to grow enough biomass fuel.
More expensive than conventional fossil fuels.
A less concentrated form of energy, making it less efficient. Creates water reserves as well as energy supplies. ADVANTAGES
Solar energy is a renewable energy resource.
There are no fuel costs.
The energy from the Sun is free.
The sun does not produce greenhouse gases.
The sun will always be there during our lifetime. PHILIPPINES
Puhagan Geothermal Plant GEOTHERMAL
ADVANTAGES Cost effective Reliable Sustainable Environmentally
friendly It is free It will not run out Pollution free DISADVANTAGES It is limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Harmful gases as sulphuric gases
and minerals may occasionally come up
from the ground below. They are always threatened by possible earthquakes . It is the energy generated from the heat inside the Earth ... ICELAND Krafla Plant ICELAND Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station TIDAL GEOTHERMAL SOLAR WATER WAVE WIND BIOMASS BIOGAS SOLAR DISADVANTAGES
Solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the cost of their electricity is high.
Solar panels may only produce very hot water in very sunny climates, and in cooler areas may need to be supplemented with a conventional boiler.
Neither solar cells nor solar panels work at night.
Some people don't like the look of solar panels. SOLAR CELLS
Are devices that convert light energy directly into electrical energy SOLAR PANELS They heat water Small solar cells Larger arrays may power road signs EVEN LARGER... HUGE The fuel is cheap and can use things that we might otherwise throw away.
We can find waste everywhere and it does not run out.
May reduce municipal, agricultural and industrial waste.
It is an inexhaustible fuel source IF HARNESSED PROPERLY. IT IS BURNING ORGANIC MATTER TO RELEASE ITS CHEMICAL ENERGY What could be used? Forestry Crops and residues Industrial residues 25 tonnes per hectare Animal Residues Municipal solid waste Agricultural Crops and residues Sewage Some types of biomass can be converted into liquid fuels called biofuels that can power cars, trucks, and tractors. Leftover food products like vegetable oils and animal fats can create BIODIESEL. Corn, sugarcane, and other plants can be fermented to produce ethanol. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES REMEMBER THINK GLOBALLY ACT LOCALLY ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Animal dung can no longer be used as a fertilizer. Methane is a greenhouse gas. The fuel tends to be cheap. Any biodegradable matter can be used as substrate. Anaerobic digestion inactivates pathogens and parasites, and is quite effective in reducing the incidence of water borne diseases. The digestate can be used as fertiliser. Can cause the flooding of surrounding communities and landscapes.
Dams have major ecological impacts on local hydrology. It can be used to produce heat, power and domestic gas. It will only produce a limited quantity of energy demand. It is dependent upon location in proximity to feedstock. Small scale biogas digester Large scale... HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER Can be generated at a Natural Waterfall.
By building a dam.
Or where water flows rapidly down a hillside It is the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. Costly to build. BUT... NO GREENHOUSE GASES ARE MADE
THE WATER USED IS FREE It is the most used renewable resource And in Argentina , there are a lot of HEP plants! Itaipú What we NEED
But Let us use ALL energy sources
being used over and over again SUSTAINABLE:
Are self generating
if left to nature Clay Silt Sand Gravel They are burnt for producing energy F. Ameghino El Nihuil Yaciretá Cabra Corral Silvana M. Albano GEOTHERMAL PLANTS IN THE WORLD