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Ulysses S. Grant

America's 18th President
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Nisha Nisha

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant
America's 18th President

Background Information
Birthdate
: April 27, 1822

Family
: Born to Jesse Grant, an Ohio tanner, and Hannah Simpson Grant; the first of six children

Religion
: Born Methodist, but was not religious

Additional Facts:
Personality-wise, Grant was very sensitive, quiet, and soft-spoken
Grant was talented in mathematics, writing, drawing, and horsemanship
Grant married his wife, Julia Dent Grant, in August 1848. The couple eventually had four children
Qualifications
Education:

In 1839, Grant's father arranged for his admission to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

There, he became known as a skilled horseman but an otherwise unexceptional student.








Grant's parents: Jesse Grant and Hannah Simpson Grant
Grant with his horse
Grant with his wife and children
Full name
: Hiram Ulysses Grant

Political party
: Republican

Presidential number
: 18

Years of presidency
: 1869-1877

Secretary of State
Hamilton Fish
Secretary of the
Treasury
George S. Boutwell
Profile
Administration
Attorney General
Secretary of War
Vice President
John Aaron Rawlins
Schuyler Colfax
(1869–1873)
Ebenezer R. Hoar
Henry Wilson
(1873–1875)
Lot M. Morrill
Benjamin H. Bristow
William A. Richardson
Qualifications (continued)
Military Experience: Mexican-American War

Upon his graduation in 1843, Grant was assigned as brevet second lieutenant in the Fourth Infantry at the Jefferson Barracks, just south of St. Louis, Missouri.

Lieutenant Grant's regiment moved further south, first to Louisiana and then Texas, to prepare for an imminent conflict with Mexico over the Texas territory.

From 1846 to 1848, Grant fought in the Mexican-American War.


He served as quartermaster for the Fourth Infantry and efficiently supervised the movement of supplies as his regiment moved through Mexico.

Serving under General Zachary Taylor and later under General Winfield Scott, Grant carefully observed their military and leadership skills.


Qualifications (continued)
George Henry Williams
Amos T. Akerman
Alphonso Taft
Edwards Pierrepont
William W. Belknap
J. Donald Cameron
Alphonso Taft
Supreme Court Nominations
Ebenezer Hoar
Edwin Stanton
Joseph Bradley
William Strong
Qualifications (continued)
Supreme Court Nominations
Ward Hunt
George Williams
Caleb Cushing
Morrison Waite
Military Experience: Mexican-American War (continued)

After getting the opportunity to lead a regiment into combat, he was cited for his bravery under fire.

Grant, however, did not revel in the ideals of war. He strongly felt that the war was wrong because of the casualties and waste that it had caused and because he felt it was being waged only to increase America's territory for the spread of slavery.






Military Experience: Civil War

When the Civil War began in April 1861, Grant became a colonel of the 21st Illinois Volunteers. Later that summer, President Abraham Lincoln made Grant a brigadier general.

Grant's first great victory came in February 1862 when his regiment captured Fort Donelson in Tennessee. When the Confederate general in charge of the fort asked about terms of surrender, Grant famously replied, “No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.” This earned him the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant."


Qualifications (continued)
Qualifications (continued)
Presidency
After the political turmoil of the Johnson administration, Americans in 1868 were looking for a steady president to guide them through the tumultuous years of Reconstruction, when the 11 Southern states that seceded before or at the start of the Civil War were brought back into the Union. General Ulysses S Grant, the man credited with keeping the union together during the Civil War, seemed like the ideal candidate.

Grant accepted the Republican nomination and won by a narrow margin, taking the presidency with no political experience.
15th Amendment
Ulysses S Grant pushed for the ratification of the 15th Amendment, and he was successful. In 1870, the 15th Amendment was ratified, which gave African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Grant proudly signed off on the Amendment, declaring that it was "a measure of grander importance than any other one act of the kind from the foundation of our free government to the present day."


Enforcement Acts
Treaty of Washington
Crédit Mobilier Scandal
Whiskey Ring Scandal
Beginning in 1870, the Congress under Grant passed a series of laws known collectively as the Enforcement Acts. These acts, also known as the Ku Klux Acts, aimed to limit the activities of white terrorist groups like the Ku Klux Klan that used violence to keep blacks from voting. The acts forbade states to discriminate against voters on the basis of race and gave the federal government power to override the state courts and try violators of the law. The federal government was also given the power to use the military to product civil rights.

In October 1871, Grant used this authority to send federal troops to South Carolina, where hundreds of suspected Klan members were then arrested.

The Enforcement Acts were successful -- they were effective weakening the Klan and by 1872, Klan violence against blacks was in decline throughout the area.
During the Civil War, Britain had declared its neutrality, but some of its citizens allied with the South for profit. English shipyards built ships for the Confederacy (such as the Alabama) which the South used to interfere with Northern shipping. After the war ended, the United States demanded that Britain pay for the damage these ships had caused in what were known as the "Alabama Claims." In 1871, Grant's Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish, devised an agreement, the Treaty of Washington. The treaty was a success as it greatly improved relations between the United States and Britain
The Crédit Mobilier scandal came to light during Grant's 1872 campaign. It involved major stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad, who formed a company, the Crédit Mobilier of America. They gave the company corrupt contracts to build the railroad, thus taking millions of dollars from the Union Pacific and the federal government. The stockholders then sold or gave shares in the construction to influential members of Congress to prevent investigations. But in 1872, Congress initiated an investigation that revealed that many important Republicans in Grant's administration -- including his vice president Schuyler Colfax -- had accepted stock.
Another major scandal of Grant's second term was the Whiskey Ring, which was exposed in 1875. This scandal involved a network, or "ring" of distillers, distributors and public officials who were cheating the federal government out of millions in liquor tax revenue by filing false reports. Indictments were found against 86 government officials, notably the chief clerk in the Treasury Department, and Grant's private secretary, Orville E. Babcock.
Civilian Life:

After the Mexican-American War, Grant returned to Missouri and married his wife, Julia Dent Grant, in August 1848. In 1854, he resigned from the military.


Now a civilian, Grant made an unsuccessful attempt at farming, followed by a failed position in a St. Louis real estate office. In 1860, the Grants moved to Galena, Illinois, where he worked in his father's leather goods business.
Military Experience: Civil War (continued)

In July 1863, Grant's forces captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, a major Confederate city. Grant, who had a reputation as a steady leader, was appointed lieutenant general by Lincoln in March 1864 and given control of all U.S. armies. He led a series of campaigns that ultimately defeated the Confederate army and helped bring the Civil War to an end. In April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia, thus bringing the deadly conflict to a close.

Grant was now one of the most respected soldiers in the Union.

In 1866, he was named general of the armies. This title had not been achieved by any other soldier other than George Washington.
General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant
Sources
Ulysses S. Grant
. 4 January, 2014.
http://www.history.com/topics/ulysses-s-grant

American President: Ulysses S. Grant
. 4 January, 2014.
http://millercenter.org/president/grant

Ulysses S. Grant
. 4 January, 2014.
http://www.biography.com/people/ulysses-s-grant-9318285.

Brinkley, Alan.
American History: A Survey
. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2012.


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