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A2 Comparison question
Transcript of A2 Comparison question
African-American influence FOR Alto soloists, Chorus, orchestra and solo piano
Rio-grande is an example of symphonic jazz combining elements of syncopation; ragtime; Brazilian influence; harmony and rhythm inspired by Duke Ellington; traditional English Choral sound; The text refers to a river in Brazil
Vocal writing: Unison and homophonic
Harmony: Rising chromatic harmony; Interrupted cadences
Instrumentation: Piano in a virtuoso role;Muted trumpets for Latin feel;PercussionCastanets/Woodblock/tambourine; Glissandi Rhythm: Latin American rhythmsAccents and cross beat rhythms Cantata BRITISH CANTATA:Gerald Finzi: Dies Natalis
Rhapsody for solo voice and string orchestra
English resonance; impressionist elements with influences from Ravel; luminous textures; folksong influences; pastoral like Vaughan Williams
Main features•doubling•imitation•sparse strings•unrelated chords•chromatic harmony•tertiary modulation•rhythmic flexibility in vocal line•lots of freedom of expression•silence and hemiola A2 Comparison Question CHORAL 2 BRITISH: SAMUEL BARBER:
A STOPWATCH AND AN ORDNANCE MAP
Male chorus; percussion and brass•
Written in 1940, this work is a setting of a lament for one of the fallen in the Spanish Civil War by Stephen Spender. •The scoring for male chorus with percussion and brass accompaniment confers the piece an appropriately wartime feeling. •Percussion sounds precede the entrance of the chorus, and a constant marching rhythm underscores the first stanza. The second is both more static and intense. In the third, the marching rhythm returns but is overcome by the intense lament of the voices.
Vocal textures:•Homophony; Bare open 5ths •Imitative, contrapuntal writing •Then, two part sparse texture•Melismas in vocal line •Imitative phrases
HARMONY•Chromatic melody •Bitonality of D major over C pedal which is unsettling•Augmented 4th in tenor line can be linked with ‘death’
INSTRUMENTATION•Just one timpani used in last stanza reflecting remaining solitary comrade•Change from hard to soft sticks CHORAL 3 BRITISHDELIUS: SONGS OF SUNSET FOR ORCHESTRA AND CHORUS
RHYTHM•Slow tempo•6/4 with a change to 4/4•Simple repetitive rhythms•Little movement in accompaniment and voices
HARMONY•Pedal notes•Falling chromatic lines•Triplets•Simple pentatonic scales•Added 6ths•Tonal ambiguity
INSTRUMENTATION•Use of harp
DYNAMICS•Large dynamic range
MELODY•Falling melodies•Descending lines through a wide range CHORAL 4 BRITISH BRITTEN: CEREMONY OF CAROLS
3 PART TREBLE CHORUS; SOLO VOICES AND HARP1.
That Yonge Child key features:
Main features of the vocal melody and how they interpret the text:•quasi recitativo and parlante •syllabic•each phrase has same rise and fall shape•modal•Each section gets louder from a quiet start – matches climax of wordsAccompaniment and relationship to the vocal part:•Accompaniment like in a recitative•Db-C disjointed ostinato throughout, in spaces in vocal melody giving feeling of unrest •Some imitation used•
2.BalulalowMusic reflects a lullaby through:Use of solo voice could suggest mother singing to baby• Vocal line begins with simple phrasing like a lullaby• Lilting minim-crotchet in voice gives rocking feeling• Steady tempo could be said to suggest regular rocking of cradle• Static harp bass provides stability on which the cradle moves• Alternation of F minor/major creates rocking motion• Use of 6/4 metre in voice against 3/2 in harp adds to rocking• Soft dynamics suggest lullaby
3. As Dew in AprilleHarmony and tonalityBegins firmly in Eb major with modality at times• Tonal ambiguity often created between two chords/keys• C major versus cm7 chord in harp • E major and C major used in alternate phrases of canon melody eg 613-64• Few different chords used – long passages alternate two chords CHORAL 5 BRITISH: SACRED CHORALHERBERT HOWELLS: HYMNUS PARADISI
Soprano/tenor solosists/mixed chorus/orchestra
Requiem Aeternam•Hymnus sets words from the Latin mass, the Psalms and other religious texts, and relies on some of the classic tropes of devotional music – notably the organ – for its profound effects
•Based on elements of traditional Requiem Mass
•Based on traditional church modes – opening suggests the Dorian on E
•Chromatic alterations in the tenor solo
The movement opens with a plaintive melody with a modal feel, which, like the plainsong melody forthe same text, climbs only two notes away from the tonic. Surprisingly, given the importance toHowells of light, which he says “touches all but one of the [Hymnus Paradisi] movements”, it is thephrase “lux perpetua” (eternal light) which attracts the harshest dissonances on its first appearances;where Harris uses dissonances to enrich his harmonies, Howells uses them like an ache begging for relief. The opening melody returns at the end, and the final chord, major in a bleakly minor landscape and with deep bass resonances, offers a glimpse of hope and perhaps a note of consolation. CHORAL 6 BRITISH: SACRED CHORAL
HYMN OF JESUS OP.37 Double chorus and semi-chorus of treble voices and orchestra
Track 1HARMONYOpening harmony is bitonalFinal phrase is modalCombination of modern harmony with old fashioned plainsong/liturgicalRHYTHMSung melody has no bar lines – lots of freedomTrack 2RHYTHM5 beats in a barStrong accented and syncopated rhythms reflects ‘praise’Rapid semiquavers reflect ‘flee’Loud ostinato features gives folk-dance effectPlainsong figures reinforced by antiphony give a liturgical effectUse of unison/monophony in passage 1 reflecting ‘prayer like’Sparse montone open intervals Texture unison/monophony suggests prayerful chanting/plainsong/praying ‘as one voice’Passage 2: sparse texture of imitative entries building to full double chorus for Dance ye all! * unison/monotone/open intervals return for lament and mourn *Bars 30 to 33 are homophonic with an antiphonal/answering/heterophonic/imitative interjection from the semi-chorus (imitating the chorus soprano melody) and giving a notion of music of the spheres.