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Enlightenment: Compare and contrast the theories of Enlighte

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Christopher Lasley

on 18 August 2018

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Transcript of Enlightenment: Compare and contrast the theories of Enlighte

Enlightenment: Compare and contrast the theories of Enlightenment Thinkers
We will be learning about....

Thomas Hobbes:
-The English Civil War (1642-1651) made Hobbes fear a society without strong government.
-Wrote Leviathan:
-In order to escape chaos- people create a
social contract
with their ruler.

You give up your freedom in exchange for:
Security and protection
The Ruler must have
absolute power
. The people have no right to rebel.
Hobbes Quote:

"Contracts without the sword are only words; the will of the sovereign must be law."
John Locke
Two Treatises on Governmen
Like Hobbes, Locke believed....
1.People give up freedom to a ruler (or government) that guaranteed peace and protection.
2.People entered a social contract with their government.
However, Locke Believed:
1. People are reasonable and cooperate.
2. The right to rule comes from
of the
3. People have the right to revolt if government doesn't protect people's
natural rights
For John Locke those natural rights are....

-Liked English form of government-separation of power among three branches of government.
Our government
----Legislative = Congress: House and Senate
----Executive =Presidency
----Judiciary= Courts

-Thought each branch should have checks and balances.
-Turn to your partner:
Why would he want this?

-French Philosphe (believed science and reason would lead to human progress.
-Wrote lots of essays and plays mocking things he saw wrong with society.
-Believed in an "enlightened monarch."
-Common sense, religious toleration and freedom of thought.
"I may not agree with what you say but I'll fight to the death to defend your right to say it."
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1. Human nature is basically good and society corrupted people.
2. All men are equal and the titles of rank should be abolish.
3. Man is born free- "Society puts him in chains"
-Wrote: The Social Contract
----Described an "ideal society"
-People give up some freedoms for the good of everyone.
-Community votes on all decisions.
What's that called?

Wrote: On Crimes and Punishments
1. Believed that laws exist to preserve social order.
2. Rallied against abuses of justice:
---Torturing of subjects and witnesses
---Irregular proceedings
---Cruel and unusual punishments
--- Punishment based on crime
---No death penalty.
Role of government:
Greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Mary Wollstonecraft
-A Vindication of the Rights of Women
-Disagreed with Rousseau that women's education should come second to men's
-Education = virtuous and productive.
-Argued for women's involvement in politics.
Thomas Paine
Common Sense, 1776
-Urged everyday people to support independence from England
-Book was a best seller and independence was declared in July of 1776
Full transcript