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12 Objects that Changed the World

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Caitlin Hanney

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of 12 Objects that Changed the World

12 Objects that Changed
the World By: Caitlin Hanney
History 102
Section 13
May 9, 2013 TEA Mini Assignment: Reflection on my word cloud:
The words I came up with about tea show that I really do not know much about it aside from a few different kinds of tea and that it is healthy for you. The first thoughts that came to my mind when I thought of tea were that it is very healthy, fresh and what people drink for dieting. It is surprising to me that people once thought tea was poisonous, bad and that beer was healthier for you. I did not know where tea came from or that it was originally picked at homes in China. All I could relate tea to were the people I have seen drinking it at my towns local coffee shops, classy people, and my grandparents because they drink tea. This explains why my word cloud contains different kinds of tea, coffee shop names, and adjectives describing it. My knowledge about tea greatly expanded after this lecture. As referenced in the "Tea for Two: China and European Colonialism" lecture, tea was discovered 4,000 years ago in 2737 BCE by Shen Nung of China. He discovered it after he drank boiled water that was sitting under a tea tree and he felt a sense of calm. Tea was first produced in China and was popularized during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907). During the T'ang Dynasty, the girls who picked the tea leaves were only allowed to pick them with their finger nails. It was a very time consuming job. green black white oolong refreshing healthy COFFEE Black Sugar Beans Energy Awake Tibet and Japan traded with China. Tibet traded war horses, which were there most valuable item to keep the empire strong for the Song Dynasty, in return for tea. Tea was very important for Tibet because they did not have a lot of vegetables for their diets. Japan traded for tea for more spiritual reasons. By the 13th century, tea philosophy lead to the tea room in Japan which became part of the architecture in the Japanese home. China eventually sent ships out east by the 14th century to trade tea. However, by the end of the 1430's, the Chinese persuaded a policy of isolation and remained secretive about their processing of tea. By 1699 regular trade began between the British and the Chinese but only under the terms set out by China:
They were to trade at only one port: Canton
They were only allowed to stay for 6 months
Access to the mainland China was forbidden
The Chinese also refused to have diplomatic relations with any country that refused to acknowledge inferior status.
All dealings by foreign merchants were required to be conducted through a guide of Chinese merchants. Tea export to Europe and British -In 1600 the East India Company was established, which was the most powerful multinational corporation the world had seen. -Tea was first only drank in coffee houses by male politicians where they discussed democracy. In 1652, the first coffee house was established in London and by the end of the century, there were several hundred! Also, sugar was first added to tea in London, where as China's tea was more pure and natural. In the 18th Century Britians thought the amount of tea being consumed was bad and that tea was poisonous! They believed that the men would become weaker from drinking something foreign. The Threat of Tea Women and Tea -In Vauxhall, 1730's, there were tea gardens which brought together men and women to dance, socialize and drink tea. However the gardens started to fall apart because they became too homo-social. -In the 1830's, tea was very popular because of the Temperance movement where women decided to abolish alcohol. Taxes and Smuggling -Many British wanted to drink tea but it was too expensive and taxes were too high: 120%! -Tea drinking was important to the industrial revolution because it kept workers awake and to get large amounts of tea, smuggling was needed. Half the tea in Britain was smuggled in. -To prevent smuggling, the Communications Act in Britain of 1783 lowered taxes on tea. Commodities are an interesting way to delve into history from a different point of view because we use them in our lives today and the commodities we discussed were somehow all connected to each other. For example, coffee and tea were both drunk in coffee houses and discussed over important political issues. I can also relate to these same commodities myself because they are just as important in my everyday life as they were for people hundreds of years ago. It is crazy to me how some commodities like water, spices and cotton are taken for granted in my everyday life, when years ago people were recognized as high class when they used spices at the dinner table and they were worth so much to people that they committed genocide just to get a little cinnamon. The commodities we talked about in class introduced us to many different cultures around the world and how they all became connected to one another. This class made me realize how taken for granted these commodities are in my everyday life when people hundreds of years ago traveled miles and miles just to get them.

I chose to make a prezi for my culmination of mini assignments in the same order we used in class because it flows together and has a unique ability to connect everything. Trade of the commodities is what connected all of the countries we studied so I thought a prezi was very fitting. I used the “blue” theme background because many commodities were traded across seas so I thought this color would be representative of all the hardships, traveling and discoveries made while voyagers went across seas to trade their goods.Through my prezi I will also represent each different commodity through geography and historical context of history and how they relate to me and my life. Preface Statement Tea in America Much of the 18th century tea was consumed in Britain but before it was popular in London, tea was popular in New York.
In 1773, America asked to have tea directly imported to America from China.
Tea Act of 1773 is about the increased taxes on imported tea which lead to the Boston Tea Party where tea was tossed overboard in a form of protest.
1775 was the American War of Independence Tea brought many countries together with trade and culture and also caused controversial problems in some countries. For example, in the 18th century, India started growing opium, an addictive substance, to trade it for tea in China. The Chinese started using opium for medical purposes but then it started becoming recreational to them and this was a big problem. This eventually lead to the first Opium War (1839-1842). Also, tea caused the Boston Tea Party in 1773 as well as taxes and smuggling.

On the other hand, tea opened up many gate ways for other commodity trade and established new lifestyles and a new company, the East India Trade Company (EIC). Tea took part in many social gatherings and brought together not only wealthy politicians but men and women from all classes. It was discovered in China in 2737 BCE and made its way across to America by the 1700's. I can relate to tea because I sometimes drink it and so do many people around me in my everyday life. Tea use to be so valued and a rarity to have, but now so many people have access to it whether its from a coffee shop, a soda machine or from the grocery store. Tea was not the only thing drunk in coffee houses though, coffee was also an important commodity that was traded between numerous countries. Fun Facts Tea bags were invented by Americans in 1903
Americans also invented iced tea in 1904 Fun Fact All different kinds of tea come from the same tea plants! Mini Assignment PEPPER &
SPICES Salt Herbs Flavor Cinnamon Garlic Mini Assignment Vasco de Gama Spice Trade SUGAR Sweet Glucose Energy Candy Treat Mini Assignment Atlantic Slave Triangle Silk Fancy Weddings Delicate Glossy Church Mini Assignment COTTON Soft Fluffy Clothes Warm Textile Yarn Mini Assignment DAIRY Milk Cheese Yogurt Food Pyramid Cows Ice Cream Mini Assignment POTATO French Fries Mashed Vegetable Baked Potato Mini Assignment BEER Cold Drunk Beer -belly Social Brewery Barley Mini Assignment WATER Refreshing Hydration Swimming Drinking Ocean Blue Mini Assignment BIG MAC Fast food Greasy Fat Burger Golden Arches I am not a big coffee drinker so I decided to just drink one cup of coffee this week and recorded my feelings. After drinking this cup of coffee I was in more of an energetic and hyper mood. After drinking this, I felt more awake, I got more done and it filled me up a lot. I was doing homework after I drank it and felt jittery and a little shaky. However, I did not really like the feeling. Another downfall though was that it was harder for me to fall asleep when I wanted to go to sleep at the usual time. Coffee for me had its positives and negatives. Maybe I will have some again when I am studying for exams.

After drinking this cup of coffee, it made me realize why there was so much hype about it and why they gave it to the slaves after a long day of work. I can also relate this to the readings, "Coffee, Coffeehouses, and nocturnal rituals of Early Modern Jewry" and "The the Virtue of the Coffee Drink" because of how they describe the affects that coffee has on people. The study of commodities is different than studying any other historical source because we use them everyday in our lives. From the lecture, "Sleep is a symptom of caffeine deprivation," coffee originated in Ethiopia by a goat herder named Kaldi who noticed his goats got excited and had energy after eating some mysterious red berries. These were the coffee beans. Kaldi tried these beans too and noticed how sharp his thoughts were. FUN FACTS Coffee is the second most imported product
The most coffee growing countries:
Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Columbia, India Coffee is grown in many countries in the southern hemisphere In the 14th century, coffee spread from Ethiopia to what is now Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula. Coffee was first used by the Muslims to stay awake and do prayer. It became a Muslim debate by Muhammad if coffee was like alcohol and if it would make them further from God. So in 1511 he attempted to ban coffee. Wealthy people had coffee roots in their houses and if they did not have roots they went to coffee houses. However, they did not like the coffee houses because of all the talk about democracy. So why did coffee persist? Coffee persisted because it is addictive, coffee houses bring people together and also because the European population grew. Coffee then spread to Persia, Turkey, Asia, and North Africa. Coffee Houses During the 17th Century, Coffee made its way to Europe where many different coffee houses were established. In 1689, Cafe de Procope was opened and it was a place for people to get together to chat and over a cup of coffee. People like Benjamin Franklin started going to the coffee houses to discuss democracy and education for all with other aristocrats. The first ideas of Revolution first began in coffeehouses that lead to the French Revolution in 1789. 1874 Transatlantic Cable Coffee was eventually brought to America by John Smith. Since America became against tea after the Boston Tea Party, coffee became more popular. First Coffee house in America:
1689-The Green Dragon Also known as the headquarters of the American Revolution Slavery became very popular as the need and want for coffee increased. Slaves would work 17 hours a day. In the 1850's, coffee growers began to pay for transportation of "colonos." 1889- coffee helped with opening up the West and was said to be essential for pioneers. 1874-The Transatlantic Cable allowed transportation of coffee by making trade happen more quickly from Brazil to the rest of the world. Coffee Gets to Brazil Coffee made its way to Brazil and took it down. This had a devastating effect on Brazil's environment because many trees were cut down and rainforest take hundreds of yeas to grow back. Coffee has become so modernized and popular in our world today along with many other commodities. Coffee was also drank by aristocrats along with tea in the coffeehouses. Coffee not only brought about the huge problem of slavery and plantations but it also had controversial effects on Brazil. On the other hand, coffee started new ways of transportation such as the Transatlantic Cable that ran across the Atlantic Ocean along with the International Coffee Agreement which made Americans interested in the free market economy.

More recently in the 21st century, there was a coffee crisis. This is where the workers were not producing enough coffee for consumers because they were not getting paid very much. Coffee is all around me everyday and many of my friends drink it on the daily to stay awake for class because it gives them energy much like the first sensation Kaldi's goats had when eating the coffee beans. Coffee has lead to huge successful franchises around the world such as Starbucks and many more. It is a commodity that people many years ago craved for the sensation after drinking it and it is still craved by many today. This is an Ambrosia Maple Salt and Pepper Mill Set. I got this image off of Google but I have ones that are similar and look just like them. These particular shakers are special because of their beautiful Ambrosia Maple that has streaks, holes, and many multiple different shades engraved in them. Each shaker piece is unique in their own way, which makes them so beautiful. Ambrosia Maple is it’s regular maple, left moist and warm and to the elements after the tree dies, so that the tree, bringing ambrosia fungus spores with it. The fungus then attacks and stains the tree and then the beetle can eat the fungus as it reproduces which in result makes beautifully figured wood that is great quality. When I saw these salt and pepper shakers online they instantly reminded me of when I use to work at Pure One Imports. I always saw so many unique and cool kinds of salt and pepper shakers in the store and my mom always wanted a set very similar to these. For my mom’s birthday one year I decided to buy her a set and she has loved them ever since. They still work great and she enjoys using them as well as just showing them off when they are displayed on our kitchen stove top. It made me really happy finding these online because it brought back many memories from when I worked at the store and how they made a great birthday present. I find these shakers very interesting and beautiful. Taken from the lecture, "Spice and Everything Nice," spice trade was very popular in the Indian Ocean due to the monsoon winds and went from the 1st century-1500 starting with the Han and Roman empires. Spice trade lead to cross cultural exchange between different countries. For example by 1250, people in Asia and Africa start to share tastes because of the spices. Eventually the crusades from Europe put spices back on the map. In 1497, Vasco de Gama left Portugal to India with 3 ships and made it back with 2 ships of pepper. That is how valuable spices were.

Portugal eventually took control of the Indian Ocean by sending more and more ships into the ocean. This was not just trade but commercial warfare. This lead to cultural interaction between different countries over spice. Portuguese became the second global languages used for trade. The Portuguese were eventually taken over by the Dutch and by the end of the 16th century, Dutch ships were seen in the Indian Ocean. The Dutch controlled trade and production. They started to kill people off so they could control trade. Eventually, the English are in control of pepper in India and Dutch controlled the rest of spice trade. States went to war over trade and through this trade, complaints turned trade into a commerce. Spices were commonly found at dinner tables of the richest and wealthiest families. Spices were greatly related to conspicuous consumption. Having spices on the dinner table or with meals meant that you were very wealthy and high class. For example, from the reading, "Sharing and Status," the wealthiest would keep their spices in spice trays or spice racks. Some were very detailed and beautiful which is another example of conspicuous consumption. Having spices was so important to people that there was conflict between countries and everyone wanted to control the trade and production like the Dutch.

I use different spices like salt, pepper, and basil on my foods everyday. It is crazy to me that people went through so much conflict and trouble years ago trying to bring spices to their dinner tables and now they are available to us everywhere we go to eat or in the stores. Much like the cross cultural exchange that happened with different countries in the 1000's-1300's, there are many different shared taste from different countries that I discover when eating different kinds of foods. There are so many different kinds of spices that can be added to foods and give you a whole new taste. This is probably what people from Asia and Africa realized when they shared tastes due to spices in 1250. Taken from the "Sugar and Power" lecture, sugar was first discovered in New Guena and Indonesia. It then spread through the Mediterranean starting in the 6th century when it spread to India and Persia, in the 8th century to Egypt and in the 15th century to Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde Islands and West Africa. What is sugar cane? It is a type of tall grass, 10-15 feet tall. When it is cracked, syrup comes out and the liquified syrup is crystallized and creates pure sweetness. By the 10th century, sugar became a middle eastern crop harvested by workers. Sugar cane is best grown in warm and wet climates. From 1095 to the 13th century, a series of Crusades happened by the Christians which brought sugar from the Middle East to Europe. The British started to become obsessed with this sweet treat and wanted more and more of it. To satisfy the need for sugar, they started to use slaves to harvest and produce sugar faster. The Portuguese were the first to take African Americans out of the Sahara to be slaves in 1441. Demand Conspicuous Consumption: People showed off their wealth with sugar by having confectioneries which were life sized things made out of sugar which was also referenced in the reading, "Culinary Spaces, Colonial Spaces."
By the 16th century, sugar started to move down to the middle class in the form of cakes Atlantic Slave Triangle Sugar was sent to Europe, Europe
sent goods to Africa and Africa
sent slaves to work on the sugar
plantations in America. In 1492, Christopher Columbus brought sugar to the America's. Around the 1550's Spanish started to enslave African Americans as slaves to produce more sugar. Middle Passage: African Americans were sold into slavery by other tribes and the most prized slaves were men 15-30 years old. The slaves were brought over on slave ships as part of the Atlantic Slave Triangle where 2 million of 13 million died on the voyage over. Life of a Sugar Slave Masters renamed them: taking their identity away
Sugar plantations were the first assembly production
In addition to their work, women were not given rest when pregnant and were to suppose to carry children on their backs.
The slaves worked day and night and used machetes to cut down the sugar stalks where hands were sometimes cut off.
Slaves never got one day off out of the whole year.
Slaves last at most 7 years because they are so overworked Haitian Revolution There were 8,000 plantations
40% of the sugar in the world from Haiti
50% of coffee in the world from Haiti
40,000 whites
30,000 free people of color The Haitian Revolution was the first and only slave revolt in the world that led to whites fleeing and Haiti becoming mostly farmers. It took America 70 years to realize Haitian independence. Along with the Haitian Revolution, there was also a French Revolution in 1789 and an American Revolution. These were brought up in the reading, "Slave Sugar Boycotts." "Silk Production Causes Painful Death for Insects"
Websites:
1. Ahisma Silk-non violent and eco friendly http://www.ahimsasilks.com/
2. What are Vegetarian Silkworms? http://www.ehow.com/info_8371448_vegetarian-silkworms.html
3. The Green Connoisseur Blog http://thegreenconnoisseur.blogspot.com/2009/03/what-is-peace-silk.html Peta, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, is obtaining undercover video footage of workers in Hungary who are mistreating the birds that they are plucking the feathers from and also how silk production causes painful death for insects. They believe that the current methods of farming silk are unethical because they are being cruel and killing off so many insects per pound of silk and are even trying to make goats produce silks by injecting them with certain jeans. Some solutions provided in the articles that I read are using ahimsa, vegetarian silk for production or “peace silk.” This means that they are cruelty free where the worm is allowed to complete its life cycle and grow into a moth. I think this solution is much more reasonable and ethical in the silk production world and will save a lot more insects and animals lives without torturing them or killing them off. I think worms/moths could be a concern in fashion production because of how much they are used now and how they can potentially go instinct. However, we do not need silk for fashion production; there are many more different materials and products that can be used to buy and produce good quality clothing. Silk Road Silk Road Indian Ocean
Trade = Tea Tea:
-Discovered 4000 years ago by Shen Nung in China
-Tea became very popular in China during T'ang Dynasty
-Tibet and Japan traded with China. Tibet traded warhorses and Japan traded tea for more spiritual reasons.
-By 1699 regular trade began between the British and the Chinese.
-Tea in America: Tea Act of 1773 leads to Boston Tea Party
-Knowledge of Tea: Tea plants discovered in India. In 1888, Indian tea production out stripped China's. = Coffee Coffee:
-Mostly grown in the South. Most producing countries are Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Columbia, India
-Coffee originated in Ethiopia then spread to Ye-men. It was then introduced to Persia, Turkey, Egypt and N. Africa.
-Coffee had major influences on France and America.
-First coffee house in Boston, 1689-The Green Dragon
-1874 Transatlantic Cable allowed transportation of coffee between Brazil America.
-By the end of the 19th century, America is drinking half of World's Coffee = Sugar Sugar:
-Sugar was first in New Guena and Indonesia
-The spread of sugar: 6th century India and Persia-8th century Egypt-15th century Maderia, Canary, Cape Verde Islands and West Africa
-By 711: Expansion of Islam and Sugar to Europe
-Slavery was rare in Muslim sugar growing world
-Christians: crusades discovered sugar, liked it, and brought more back to Europe.
-Royals were the first to confuse sugar but by the 16th century it made it down to the middle class.
-1492: Christopher Columbus brought sugar to America
-Atlantic Slave Triangle
-Saint Dominique/Haiti: 8,000 plantations, 40% of sugar in the world. Sugar was not only a sweet reward for the slaves after a long days of work but also a way to sweeten peoples tea or coffee drinks. Sugar reintroduced the topic of conspicuous consumption and also brought about many new beginnings and controversy around the world. For example, because of sugar, the middle passage was created so that African Americans could be sold into slavery for sugar plantations, the Haitian Revolution took place where the slaves revolted and the white abolition happened where Europeans started to question whether slavery was an issue.

I cannot imagine not having sugar today. Without sugar there would be many more people under the obesity line. However, sugar has added so much sweetness to different foods and without sugar the cakes, deserts and pastries we enjoy on our birthdays, for special occasions or just because would not be the same. Sugar is in everything. I put sugar into my body everyday. Even though it is not the best for you, it is what I use to energize my body and to get me through the day, much like slaves did after working all day on the plantations. Sugar was the one thing they looked forward to and was a way to reward themselves and give them that little bit of energy to keep going. What is silk? From the lecture, "The History of Silk," silk was discovered in China in 5,000 BCE. It has never lost it's status as a luxury good and it is still not cheap. Silk is used for formal wear and has unique qualities as a fiber. It very labor intensive to make. How is it made? Silk is produced by twisting silk filaments from silk worms and then weaving them into cloth. The silk worms feed on mulberry trees and 2000 pounds of mulberry leaves=12 pounds of silk. The silk worms are killed by being boiled and their cocoons unravel up to 3,000 feet long! Benefits of Silk -Extremely strong
-Can be died any color
-Cold in heat, warm in cold
-Can take away moisture
-Fibers can be very small
-Softer Silk in China Silk was produced over 7,000 years ago and it impacted social, religious purposes and the economy. Lady Xiling Leizu was the first to discover silk and was also the first person to discover the loom. In 3630 BCE, the earliest silk piece of clothing was made.

From150-1050 BCE during the Shang Dynasty, there were oracle bones found with the word silk worm and loom written on them. Silk was used to write on because it would not break and can be rolled up.

By the Han periods, there were government run workshops. This is when more people in China and outside of China became more aware of silk. The Silk Road The silk road ran from the Mediterranean to Central Asia (east to west) and exchanges done on it were just as important as Christopher Columbus'. It was 4,000 miles long and had many different little roads. A lot of people would travel it and carry goods that they handed off to different partners along the way. The conditions on the silk road were very brutal, often times delaying trips or leaving people left to die. For example, there were mountains, prairies, deserts and forests, and travelers faced possibilities of attacks by bandits (they could make merchants lose everything) and bad weather.

The silk road went through many different changes, for example, during the 5th and 6th centuries, it died down significantly because of problems happening between Roman and Han empires like suffering from epidemics. Later on, trade between China, India and Central Asia increased and the T'ang Dynasty promoted trade (618-907). Roman Silk What did silk mean to the Romans?
-Silk was used to decorate and purple dye was very popular to them
-The process of making purple dye was discovered by Phonetician God
-Only certain people could wear purple
-Members of the Roman Senate had purple trim on their togas Why would a country prohibit luxuries coming from elsewhere?
-Imbalance of power when nothing is coming in: only thing leaving is gold.
-And there was a moral problem with silk; it was too revealing (Greek statues) Religion Religion also moved along the silk road by missionaries, merchants and pilgrims. Buddhism, Christianity and Islam were all moved along the silk road. For example, for Christianity, they donated silk to churches and used it for alters in Europe. They also used silk for garments of priests which is still done today. Silk thousands of years ago was expensive and very valuable and it still is today. It's unique fiber creates a special texture and feel that many appreciated years ago and it is still do now. Only the wealthiest wore silk in the past and today many people still only wear silk for special occasions. The color purple was a symbol of wealth and power to the Romans and only certain people could wear it. Today, white silk, like that used for weddings dresses, is used usually only for special events and it represents wealthiness and importance also.

Conspicuous consumption is represented differently with silk, because now people are not showing off through what they eat or have displayed at their dinner tables, but through what they wear. This is still relevant in our society today. For example, people judge one another on their wealth by what clothing brands they wear or how much they spend on their clothes. Also, silk is still seen as very important to religion like in Christianity, purple silk garments are still worn by priest and draped over the alters. For this mini I brought 3 tags to class that were 100% cotton from different t-shirts that I own and during class we laid them all on a big map to see where they were manufactured. We then looked into the income of the workers in those countries and how much they made for the hours they worked. I got together with some people who had a country with wages to work with and calculated how much those workers made. We found out that mostly all the workers get paid very little for working many hours.
So, is it better to by a t-shirt made in a developing country rather than the United States? I said...
Much of the clothing we wear comes form countries south of the U.S and the workers make very little money an hour for the amount of work they do. It would be better to buy from America so that we were making the profit and paying our workers to make the products. So yes, I think it is more important to buy clothing from the United States because it will give individuals more job opportunities in our own country and workers in the other countries are getting a very small percentage of the money that their country makes when we buy from them anyways. Identity Politics My clothing is a huge part of who I am and my identity politics. In class we were to wear a pair of jeans and then write about how those jeans described our personality/identity. Well I wrote....

"The jeans I wore today are from American Eagle which is my favorite store and where I get most of my clothes from. They are also jeggings which are about 80% of the jeans I own because they are the most comfortable for me and fit me best. They are simple because I am a simple person."

This relates to identity politics because it describes how a piece of clothing like the jeans I wear can help describe me as a person even though many many people in the world wear jeans. Indus River Valley Northwestern Europe Early History of Cotton Taken from the lecture, "Cotton, Identity and Art," cotton originated in India and was first domesticated in the Indus Valley in 2300-1760 BCE. In the reading, "The Spinning World," it talked about India and how it was the most important manufacturing company in the world. Cotton spread to many different areas/countries and India became known as the main country for cotton production. Also, cotton is a great example of southernization which is the spread of plants, ideas (religion), and technology. In the 1st century, Egypt became an important overseas trader of cotton and an important world market. Then, in the 7th and 8th centuries, Arabs conquered Spain, Central Asia, and NW India. Through this cultivation, cotton became a major crop for them. By the 13th and 14th centuries, more contact was happening between the east and the west and southernization was taken over by westernization. Then, by the 16th century, the Indian cotton made its way to Europe. There was much controversy over cotton because the British believed it was taking away their pride and going against what they believed in like talked about in the article, "Finding the Moral Fiber," because most of their clothing was made of wool. They were also worried that if aristocracy and middle class people had the same clothing, they would not be able to tell them apart. For example, wool was used for servant dress.

Cotton was so frowned upon in this time in Britain that when women wore bright colored calico's, they were attacked.
However, in 1774, cotton was able to be worn in
Britain only because they were able to produce
cotton spun clothing of their own as good as India's.
By 1815, 1/4 of children, women and men were
working in cotton factories! Cotton in America Christopher Columbus discovered cotton in the Bahamas on his journey west. By the 1500's, cotton was popular all over the world and the United States became one of the largest exports of cotton due to its inexpensive costs and the help of African American slaves much like the ones used on sugar plantations. Cotton production was a boom like many other commodities. However, it started in India and production there was going strong for a long time unlike the other commodities. Countries like Britain were hesitant with wanting to wear cotton because they were so accustomed to the wool clothing that they wore. Eventually, they realized along with many other countries, that cotton is a very useful commodity because of its cheapness and ability to be dyed any color. Also, cotton plantations brought back the problem of slaves being used and mistreated which played a huge role in forming more racism in our country later on.

Cotton is a fabric that is most commonly worn today. Much like how the people of Britain expressed their culture and clothing style by wearing wool in the 17th and 18th century; today many of us express our styles with what we wear and much of what we wear is made of cotton. Cotton is produced in countries all over the world and people do not realize all of the hard labor that still goes into producing cotton clothing today much like the people probably did not realize the blood, sweat and tears slave workers put in to producing cotton clothing years ago. After reading "Nestle boycott," I found out that the Nestle boycott has been a very controversial boycott going on for the past 36 years. This boycott started in 1977 because of Nestlé’s “aggressive marketing” for their substituted breast milk formula that resulted in not being healthy for babies. Using infant formulas instead of breastfeeding has led to health problems and deaths among infants in less economically developed countries. This is why boycotters do not like the fact that Nestle is trying to push their products onto consumers because it is such a big problem. The boycott has many reasons to prove why Nestlé’s baby formula substitute is bad for babies especially in developing countries. For example, the Nestle boycott has found four problems that can arise when mothers in developing, poor countries switch to formula. First of all, the boycott position says that formula must normally be mixed with water, which is often contaminated in poor countries, which then in turn leads to disease in infants. Second, most mothers in poor countries do not have the fuel to boil water, electric light to enable sterilization at night for their baby formula. The third reason is that many poor mothers use less formula powder than is necessary in order to make a container of formula last longer. This is problematic because their babies are not getting all of the nutritional amounts that they need to be healthy. The last reason boycotters have to believe that Nestlé’s baby formula is not good for infants are that breast milk has more natural benefits and nutritional vales than baby formulas do. On the other hand, Nestlé’s position is still strong. According to footnote 30, “The Aim of the Code is to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition of infants, but the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes.” Nestle is trying there best to come up with a healthy and nutritional substitute for breastfeeding for those mothers who are not able to breastfeed and I do not see what is wrong with that. This product is only helping those who do not have any other choice for feeding their babies. I do not believe that Nestle has acted irresponsibly. I think they are doing a good thing by producing this substitute for breastfeeding. What would those mothers who cannot breastfeed do if they did not have a baby formula like Nestlé’s to use as a substitute? I think it is wrong that boycotters are targeting Nestle so much when there are many other companies that are also producing baby formula products Yes, I do think that boycotts are effective ways of creating consumer resistance because they draw a lot of attention to certain problems through articles or in the media where everyone can see them. For example, boycotters made it known that Nestle and their baby formula products are bad for consumers. So when people started seeing articles from boycotters about why this baby formula product was so bad, they realized that product was bad and they did not want to buy that product anymore. Another way to create change coming from the consumer in commodity culture would be to advertise why breastfeeding is good and all of its nutritional or health benefits instead of boycotting other products that are substitutes for breastfeeding such as Nestle. Holland From the lecture, "It's Gouda Enough for Me,"in 3100 BCE, Isis was the Goddess of Milk. She was the mother and maid and was the goddess that protected young mothers while sustaining breastfeeding. She was half beast with cow horns. As she migrated around the world, her identity changed. For example, Ishtar was the Mesopotamian goddess and Hathor was the Egyptian goddess.

Aristotle put women in the same category as animals who nurse their young. Virgin Mary of Christianity was similarly related to Isis. Milk was questionable 160 BCE-18th century.
In some civilizations, it was considered Barbarianism to drink milk and those who did were not considered part of the civilization.
Milk is considered blood boiled-people are worried about milk. They thought only really young and old people were okay to drink it. Medieval Milk (5th-15th C)
-Could only have milk May-September
-By the 7th century, some milk was produced year round
-By medieval times, 25% of recipes had milk as an ingredient.
-Milk was tied to conspicuous consumption for the wealthy
-Only old and young people drank milk
-Milk was not always good depending on what the cow ate or did Renaissance Milk (14th-17th C)
-Butter became the newest ingredient Milk in the 1600's-Cash Cows and Dutch diligence Eventually Dairy shed its bad reputation when scientist started realizing its importance to the human body like from the reading, "Milk in the Nursery, Chemistry in the Kitchen."
Dutch were so successful because of Dairy
Cheese, butter and milk=huge agricultural importance to Holland
The soil there is really good for cows to eat because they start to use fertilizer
They also had a bunch of canals to move dairy products to the cities and then manure was sent back (they figured out a great system).
People became more filled out and stronger How the Taste for Milk Grew 18th C
Holland to England
When milk moved to England, it became important to European diets
Milk use to be associated with the poor
Then the English followed the Dutch example
George Cheyne: Scottish doctor, wrote book in 1773 that said people were eating too many luxuries and they should drink more milk to "purify" the body.-He believed milk cured everything. Milk diet also became very popular in the France by the 1760's. Dairy is so vital and important in our everyday diets. Without it, babies would not be developing properly and the human bone structure would be much weaker. It is shocking to me that back in the 200 BCE and so on, milk was only drunk by babies and really old people. Milk eventually lead to the invention of cheese and butter which are also very important today. They are not as vital in our diets but they bring a lot of production and profits here to the United States. For example, Wisconsin is one of the largest producers of cheese out of the 50 states.

I consume dairy products such as milk on a daily basis and do not know what I would do if it was never discovered. Also, in our society today, breast feeding is so stressed and vital for an infant to develop healthy and I cannot imagine what life would be like if Isis, the goddess of milk, did not represent how important milk was. Years ago, milk was consumed by the wealthiest people as an example of conspicuous consumption. Today diary is a category on the food pyramid representing how important it is to our everyday diets. My ethnic background is part Polish, Swiss, Scottish and a little German. Potatoes are a pretty important part of my culture. I eat mashed potatoes, potato salad, sweet potatoes, french fries, etc. pretty often. My Grandma who is Polish is known for her amazing potato salad recipe. I do not have her exact recipe but I found a similar one online: Follow-up Activity: This potato recipe makes me think of my Grandma Kowaleski and how she makes it only for special occasions such as Christmas, wedding showers, baby showers or Easter. She makes it exactly the same every time and it taste better each time. This is obviously something I do not eat often but it is one of my favorites. This also reminds me of my family because my grandma is an amazing cook and so is my mom. My great grandma had the recipe and passed it down to my grandma, so it has been in the family for a while. I appreciate when she makes it because she puts so much effort into it and she makes it taste amazing every time! Peru Taken from the, "Potato" lecture, the Inca's were the first to domesticate potatoes in Peru. Unlike many other plants and crops in Peru, potatoes were able to grow very well due to the mountainous regions, the perfect climate for potatoes. Potatoes were special because many could be grown/produced on a smaller area of land which appealed to places like Peru that had smaller growing spaces in the mountains. Also, they grew a variety of different kinds of potatoes in Peru to ensure the survival of their harvest. To India, China,
Japan in 1600's Potatoes eventually spread to the rest of the world and was known as a life changing crop because it could be grown in almost any climate. It was brought from Peru and South Africa, across the ocean by sailors who brought it back for food to Europe. Ireland was one of the majors countries known for potatoes because the soil, climate and short growing season was well suited for growing plants there. Unfortunately, Ireland stuck to growing only one type of potato which made it very susceptible to be infected by disease. This is what caused the potato famine from 1845-1849 in Ireland. In the reading, "Potato. A History of the Propitious Esculent," they talked about a potato famine that happened in Papa New Guinea. After 1590's After 1700 1800's Unlike many other commodities, Potatoes were first grown in South America. Most other commodities could not be grown in mountainous regions such as Peru. The potato can be grown in almost any climate, it has a shorter growing season, there are a variety of different kinds of potatoes and it is nutritious. This is why potatoes became so widely spread and popular without the need of trade around the world.

Potatoes are a huge part of my everyday diet whether they are in the form of french fries, mashed potatoes, baked potatoes or sweet potatoes. It is interesting to me how quickly widespread this commodity became after the Colombian exchange. I also found it interesting that this commodity was not used for conspicuous consumption years ago like many others were. It was crop that many people of any class, all over the world could enjoy the taste of. Also, the world learned from this commodity after the Ireland potato famine happened in 1845. This showed how detrimental growing just one particular kind of potato can be to a huge population of people. Potatoes are still plentiful today and contribute to many people's diets around the world. Interesting facts about Potatoes Most important crop in the temperate zones (only wheat compares)
Roots can grow underground
Can be cultivated in poor soil/land and in various latitudes: up to 10,000 feet Potato Recipe: “Mama bear’s Potato Salad”
Ingredients: Original recipe makes 16 servings.
Change Servings 20 small red potatoes 1 (30 ounce) jar creamy salad dressing (such as Miracle Whip®)
12 eggs
2 (16 ounce) packages bacon
1 (8 ounce) package shredded Cheddar cheese
ground black pepper to taste Directions
Place potatoes into a large pot and cover with salted water; bring to a boil.
Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer until tender, about 20 minutes.
Drain and let potatoes cool.
Place eggs in a saucepan and cover with water.
Bring to a boil, remove from heat, and let eggs stand in hot water for 15 minutes.
Remove eggs from hot water, cool under cold running water, and peel.
Dice the eggs when cool.
Place the bacon in a large skillet and cook over medium-high heat, turning occasionally, until evenly browned, about 10 minutes.
Drain the bacon slices on paper towels. When cooled, crumble and set aside.
Dice potatoes into a large salad bowl and mix with crumbled bacon, diced eggs, and salad dressing.
Sprinkle top of salad with shredded Cheddar cheese, and mix the salad thoroughly.
Season with black pepper. For best flavor, chill salad overnight. For this mini assignment our group chose to analyze the “elderly” primary source category and both sources are shown below. In this category, there was a poster and a postcard. The poster was an advertisement for “Esser’s Best” beer and it featured an old man and woman drinking the beer together as the main background. The second primary source was a postcard with a guy sitting on his dead wife’s grave drinking a beer. Although these two primary sources are very different, there are still many similarities between the two.
When first looking at this poster, our group noticed that it was colorful for its time period, there was contrast in the color, the beer was from “Cross Plains Brewery,” it was called “Esser’s Best,” the main picture was an old man and woman with a saying at the bottom that read, “We’re not too old to like it.” Also, this old couple each had wine glasses full of beer, he’s smoking, there is a plate of cookies in front of them, and it looks like they are sitting at a bar. The overall visual character for the poster is happy, relaxed, and it looks like they are having fun. The main focus of this poster is people drinking beer with little words around it and the whole bottom section is saved for the beer’s logo. Also, there are simple colors incorporated on the poster with contrast.
When first looking at the postcard, our group noticed that it was black and white, the stamp is from 1907, its addressed to Ralph Christensen, it was printed in England, the man is in the middle of the picture, there is a church in the background and the man sitting on the tombstone is pouring beer with a cigar and it says, “A quiet time at last” on the bottom. This overall visual character for this postcard is kind of mixed emotions. The guy looks really happy, pouring his beer but then he is sitting on his wife’s grave, which is pretty sad and depressing. Also, the postcard is not in color, so that tells you it’s from a long time ago.
This poster makes me think about the beginning of the 20th century and that it first came out after the Temperance Movement. The man and woman are happily drinking, so it sends the message that this beer will result in a good marriage. It also made me think that this poster is saying, if you’re ever tired or feeling down, this beer could be a good pick-me-up. Also, this poster advertisement was brought back in the 80’s or 90’s probably for the reason to portray the “good ol’ days.”
This postcard makes me feel sad for this guy’s wife and it seems like he did not have a say in his marriage and household. It is also kind of creepy to me that he is happily sitting on his dead wife’s grave. Also, you can tell this postcard must be old because he is wearing a top hat and it is in black/white.
These objects both convey similar messages but they can still be interpreted in many different ways. For example, in both of these primary sources, the people are happily drinking there beer and it looks like they are having a good time but for completely different reasons. The poster is conveying what a happy couple looks like drinking beer together and it gives you a content, relaxing feeling. On the other hand, in the postcard picture, the guy is happy because his wife is dead and now he can enjoy a beer, which makes you feel unsure about the situation. Also, the poster is actually an advertisement for this particular kind of beer rather than just a postcard picture. Both these advertisements show that the cultures were different in these time periods and that everyone respects their husbands/wives differently. Second Primary Source
-Postcard First primary source
-Poster Discovery of Beer Outside of class we were to watch the video, "Beer Changed the World." From this video, I learned that agriculture came about because of the need to make beer, beer established modern health care, beer ended child labor and much more! Well it all started in 9000 BC in the middle east when hunter and gatherers started farming and created the first civilization, Mesopotamia. This was called the "agricultural revolution" where they produced barley along with other crops. Beer was discovered when people from this civilization left barley in jugs and it rained for a long time and then the barley got converted into CO2 and alcohol. This was the first accidental beer ever made! PROOF Beer symbols and residue were found on artifacts from the Mesopotamia time period
Writing was invented for record keeping (symbols on clay tablets) and the symbol for beer showed up on many ancient artifacts
Beers "feel good" factor changed the world
Thirst for more beer and more barley to make it with eventually lead to new technologies (plow, irrigation, wheeled carts, math for farming, writing). 3,000 BC Civilization is in full flow thanks to beer
Helped Egyptian civilization: beer was called the "Gift of the Gods"
Ray=creator of life, love, beer
Pyramids: workers that built the pyramids were paid/rewarded with beer. They received 1 gallon of beer per day.
Beer was 3% alcohol by volume but had lots of vitamins and it gave workers energy and nutrients! Fun Facts Americans brew 6.2 billion gallons of beer a year
Americans drink 20 billion gallons of beer a year
The Founding Fathers were all brewers It may seem crazy to say that beer changed the world, but in reality, it did. Beer lead to so many inventions, started civilizations and saved many peoples lives. For example, beer had to do with a revolution in medicine when doctors started to find tetracycline, an antibiotic, in the bones of skeletons and found out it came from beer! Also, bad drinking water killed many in Medieval Europe and people started making bad, non drinkable pond water into beer which saved countless of lives!

Beer is a a commodity that is so popular and all around us in culture and society today. I usually only hear about the negative outcomes that drinking beer leads to, which is why this video surprised me and changed my whole perspective of beer. Beer was very different from the other commodities because it was not as commonly traded and it was not a necessity to most people; it just lead to many great discoveries and helped many civilizations. People today drink beer for the refreshing taste, energy and good feeling it gives them much like the egyptian pyramid builders did to get them through the day. After learning about the history of this commodity, I would definitely have to agree that beer did change the world. Undergraduate Conference I put the undergraduate conference "mini assignment" under the beer commodity because I went to a conference about beer. The panel about the Regional German Beer Culture: “The Contemporary Concerns in a Changing Tradition” by Louis Waldmeir talked about how Germany’s beer traditions and culture have changed. He informed us about the oldest beer purity laws (Reinheitsgebot) and how beer was originally made. He also talked about the symbolic meaning of German beer and how there are many small breweries in Germany that brew for a specific community and how a small brewery means good quality. On the same note, he talked about how beer advertisements are very traditional and incorporate religion such as images of the holy on their beer labels. He then went into how historically, beer use to be the “drink of everyman” in Germany and how it was a pretty healthy drink. Now, things are changing and this year, Germans are drinking less beer than ever before. He believes this is happening because it is seen as more unhealthy now and it is not as cool anymore to the younger crowd. This relates to our history course because there is a broad history behind commodities and it shows that the history behind a commodity can change drastically over a long period of time. Beer started off as a very popular drink that was said to be pretty healthy for you and now people are starting to realize that it is detrimental to your health and fewer people are consuming it. Now, more of the younger crowd in Germany is starting to drink vodkas and wine instead of beer. This proves that a population or countries interest can change over a period of time. For example, tea was very popular years ago and was later on replaced by soft drinks, juices and more sugary drinks that people adapted to because the taste was more pleasing. This panel about the Regional German Beer Culture discussed one of the twelve commodities that we are covering in class and it was very informative about how one commodity can change in a culture. Practical way to conserve water: Turn the sink off while brushing teeth! How much water will I save in 5 days?
About 16 gallons How much water will I save in 1 month?
About 100 gallons How much water will I save in 1 year?
About 1200 gallons How much would the entire class save in 1 year?
About 36,000 gallons! Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley Taken from the lecture, "A History of Water" Common feature: all started by a river
Mesopotamia: Twin Tigris and Euphrates (6000-2800 BCE)
Egypt: Nile (3150-1069 BCE)
Indus Valley: Indus River (2600-1700 BCE) Groups of people that wanted to settle down, started civilizations by bodies of waters such as those above did.
These were great water resources for them, however natural disasters such as floods could happen and societies would fall apart! Rise of Athens 750-500 BCE Some civilizations did not have perfect rivers
Athens traded wine and olive oil for grain with Indus Valley and the Egyptians
By the 4th millennium BCE sea trade advanced by cargo ships: Mediterranean sea trade (Phoenicians, Etruscan, Greeks) China's Grand Canal 7th century- Xanxi River: 30 feet deep, 100 feet wide, spanning 1,100 miles. Longest waterway to exist
People dug river out by hand or with shovels
Not a great river, killed millions of people
People would trade on it The Yellow River is where the civilization in China began Steam Power Britain geographically very rich and very wet
Use all water by them to create canals
England by 1700's ran into a problem with flooding so they invented the steam engine which pumped water out of mines.
This lead to the first steam powered factory in 1771 July 1858, England puts in a bill to clean the Thamas River: Sanitary Revolution
Saved many lives
abolished infant mortality
safe to live in the city now
discovered germs!
discovered that sewage is bad! Troubled Water Water started many civilizations and great inventions but it also caused many fatalities and problems, past and present. From the video we were to watch outside of class, "Troubled Waters," it talks about how the Mississippi River emptying into the Gulf of Mexico is creating the second largest dead zone in the world! 18 million people depend on the Mississippi River for drinking water and 31 states empty into the river! This is a huge number which is why so many are affected. There are 400 dead zones worldwide and like I said before, the Gulf is the 2nd largest. There is too much nitrogen fertilizer used to help with farming that is running off and emptying into the Mississippi. Then, the sediments from the Mississippi River move into the Gulf of Mexico where algae settles on the bottom and bacteria feed on it. This is what's creating such a large dead zone. This is a great example of how humans and producers of food can have on fresh bodies of water which is why everyone needs to be conscientious of how they are affecting the environment! Water is the most useful commodity and resource on the planet. It can be used for transportation, survival, communication and much more! Without transportation on water, many countries and civilizations would not have been discovered. Water helped many populations to thrive and stay alive which is why civilizations were created by bodies of water. Also, without water, trade of commodities between countries would have been impossible. Less culture between countries would have been shared and the different commodities would not have made it to all different parts of the world the way they did.

Without water we would not be alive today. However, many cities and populations of people also experience natural disasters due to water such as hurricanes or tsunamis. This can have damaging affects and wipe out countless numbers of people at a time. Also, many countries are at risk for contamination of water like the Gulf of Mexico is. I can relate to a body of water being at risk because my hometown is on Lake Michigan which is at risk because it is being taken over by mussels. This can be detrimental to Lake Michigan and it is one of Wisconsin's main water sources. Examples such as this one happen everywhere around the world which is why every person is affected by the commodity, water. I remember going to McDonalds as a child was a treat and I really looked forward to it. My mom usually only brought me there on a Friday or Saturday and I looked forward to going there so I could sit in the cool train booth and pick if I wanted to sit in the front or the caboose. Also, I remember always wanting to play in the ball pit in the play area. That was my favorite and my mom would have to beg us to get out if we were there for a while. I also really looked forward to going there and getting the kids happy meals with the sweet toys inside. I remember collecting the mini firby toys when they were putting them in the happy meals for a while. Those were my favorite toys to get, which is why I always wanted to get the kids happy meals.
McDonalds was a place my mom, dad or aunt only took us as a treat or special occasion because they knew we enjoyed going there. As I grew up however, I realized that it really is not that nice of a place at all and my parents probably took us there on a weekend when my mom did not feel like cooking or when she wanted to take us to the play land to tire us out for the night. McDonalds was not a huge part of my childhood, it was just a food place I enjoyed and looked forward to going to as a kid for the happy meal toys, and play land area. Mini Assignment First McDonalds Taken from the lecture, "The History of McDonalds: Ronald's Trip Around the World," in 1937, the first McDonalds was started by two brothers, Richard and Maurice (nickname was Mac) in Southern California. It was originally called the "McDonalds Brother's Burger." It was a drive in near a high school where they started off just selling hotdogs and hamburgers.
By the end of the 1940's, they got tired of running this kind of business, so they closed it down and opened it back up shortly after with changes.
It opened back up in 1948 with a new way of creating fast food.
They got rid of hotdogs, they did not have silverware anymore and it became a factory system where they did not need skilled cooks/waitresses-This was called the new, "Speedee Service System" Ray A. Kroc The McDonald's brothers made a deal with Ray A. Kroc to make their business into a corporation
Kroc brought McDonalds to the place we know it is today
He was obsessed with cleanliness, control and good sales
He started marketing toward children (when you market towards children, you get the whole family to come along for a meal)
In 1955 McDonalds franchises! Fun Facts There were 250 McDonald's in 1960 and that number jumped to 3,000 in 1973!
In 1970, Americans spent 6 million dollars on fast food
In 2001, Americans spent 110 billion dollars on fast food
Americans now spend more money on fast food than higher education and cars!
1950-60's baby boomers, started building playgrounds to get children to go
1960 Willard Scott invented the new logo-"clown" Britain 1994 McLibel Case: They believed McDonalds destroys rainforest, sells unhealthy junk food, torture and murder of animals
Trial lasted 3 years but McDonalds won France 1990's Anti McDonalds movement
Farmer wanted to protest against America and World Trade organization
World Trade organization put taxes on farm food from France
French Farmers protest against McDonalds
Throw 3 tons of poop in McDonalds Italy 1986 Slow Food Movement (started in 1986) in Italy because the first McDonalds was going to be placed in Rome.
This movement moved to 150 countries Readings "The McDonaldization of Society"

"McDonalds in Japan" The McDonalds brothers probably never would have predicted what has become of the McDonalds franchise today. McDonalds have spread all over the world to 119 different countries and this all started from two brothers opening up a burger and hotdog joint in southern California! The speedy service and tasty food attracted more and more customers each year and people liked that every McDonalds they ate at tasted the same. How did this huge franchise start affecting the rest of the world? Well, now many people around the world are eating the same food like McDonalds because everyone is trying to fit in with the rest of society. The fast food world brings quick service and tasty food into the picture. However, it has been a huge contributing factor in the obesity epidemic going on in the United States because of the amount of fat in most of their menu items such as the Big Mac.

McDonalds is a fast food franchise that many countries around the world have in common and it was also one of the few commodities that started right here in the United States. McDonalds has been a part of my life as long as I can remember. The fun play lands and attractions for kids is what draws many children in at a young age. This is why obesity is becoming more of a problem at such a young ago. I wanted to go to McDonalds because of the cool commercials I saw on TV and the fun toys. Ray A. Kroc's intentions were to lure children in this way. A food industry such as McDonalds is representative of how quickly corporations are able to grow and also how much consumers are willing to buy products such as the Big Mac. The McDonalds franchise rapidly spread around
the world and they are now in 119 different countries! FUTURE POSSIBILITIES Looking back at the whole course, there are many problems that can arise due to the different commodities. However, there are solutions that can be implemented to help some of these problems caused by different commodities. First of all, we could all try to save water by, taking shorter showers, turning of the sink while brushing our teeth and using less plastic water bottles. Another problem is the coffee being bought from other countries. One way I am going to help work on this problem is to buy fair trade coffee, which is from produces that are making enough money for the work they do. As far as the obesity epidemic in our country right now, McDonalds is definitely contributing to the number of people that are overweight. To help limit the number of people that are obese, McDonalds could try to limit the amount of fat in their food products. I am going to try to consume less McDonalds so that I do not become obese! Another commodity that is contributing to obesity around the world is sugar. Sugar is in almost everything that we eat and it is bad to consume too much of it. This is a big problem especially at a young age because many kids get use to eating sugar early on and get use to consuming it. One way I am going to work on this problem is cutting down the amount of sugar I put into things I make. For example, next time I am going to make muffins, I am going to substitute the sugar with applesauce. Buy finding solutions to these problems in our society, I am helped our society and the environment as well as myself. These are all things that if many people did, we would be helping to save this planet. 30 Day Challenge Week 1: For this week, I will take shorter showers and only drink water from my camelbak water bottle because of the amount of water we are wasting everyday around the world. Just by turning the water off when I brush my teeth everyday for a week I will save around 20 gallons of water! Week 2: I will not drink soda because of the amount of sugar in it and sugar content in foods is contributing to obesity in this country. I am helping myself to maintain a healthier body by consuming less sugar! Week 3: I will not eat any fast food like from McDonalds because obesity is a huge problem in our society today and McDonalds is contributing to this epidemic. By not eating McDonalds, I will be making my body healthier and not contribute to obesity. Week 4: For the last week, I am going to buy some coffee and be more conscientious of where the coffee is coming from and being made. Much of our coffee is being made in countries where it is not fair trade so I want to make sure it is. June 10th I think by this time I will be happy with the experiments and realize that I am making a difference in the world just by taking action and doing little things here and there that I would normally never think about doing. I also think that after I am done with this experiment, I will want to keep making a difference and maybe add more solutions to my list of things. I think this is a great experiment. Doing a little thing like turning the water off while brushing your teeth is so easy but can make a huge difference in the world if more people get involved so I will also spread the word! Tags I worked with in class!
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