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Transcript of Civilization Begins
A. Mesopotamia --> Land between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
C. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
1. Meso had little rain but...
2. The rivers deposited
(Very rich soil) all over the land
3. The two rivers would overflow for the above to happen.... How???
B. Sumerian Cities: Eridu, Ur and Uruk
1. City-States --> Units of Sumerian civilization (essentially cities)
II. First Civilization
Why were the first farming societies located along rivers?
How did religion play an important role in these societies?
D. Irrigation --> use of complex systems to drain water to areas being farmed
B. Mesopotamia was part of Fertile Crescent --> An area of land with rich soil and many crops
What is a "fertile Crescent??"
2. Surrounded by walls
a. Why did Sumerians build walls around their cities?
3. Creativity --> using mud to build
a. Invented arch and dome
C. Sumerian Religion
1. Ziggurat --> Temple (Place of worship)
2. Gods owned their cities
3. Social, political, economic center of the city --> surplus food even stored here for trade
What do you notice about ziggurats?
4. Priests and Priestesses held a lot of power
5. Theocracy --> Gods ruled the cities (Divine Authority)
1. Traditional Economy
a. What does this mean?
2. Farming --> Fertile Crescent
3. Trade and Industry
a. Copper, gold and silver being used for jewelry and tools
b. Imported copper, tin and timber for fish, wool, barley, and metal
1. Three major social groups:
a. Nobles: Royals and Priests
b. Commoners: Worked for palace and temple as farmers, merchants, fishers, craftspeople
c. Slaves: Belonged to palace officials
On Page 28 read and complete the History and Architecture section
Answer Questions 1 and 2 in your notebook
"You, in your judgement, you are the son of Anu (god of the sky). Your commands, like the work of a god, cannot be reversed. Your words, like rain pouring down from heaven, are without number." Pg. 29
Quote from anonymous Sumerian. Describe what this Sumerian is saying about the king
Stop and Jot
Why were the early Mesopotamian cities considered theocracies? Explain.
1. Religion fits into which category best: Economic, political, social. Explain your answer
G. Writing and Literature
1. 3,000 B.C created cuneiform system of writing/text
a. Record keeping
b. Schools to train scribes, teachers, jurists
2. Epic of Gilgamesh
Look at page 30 and start reading where it says "Writing was important..."
What do we learn about a culture when reading their literature?
1. Developed wagon wheel for transport
2. Sundial --> To keep time
3. Arch for construction