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Italian Renaissance Theatre History Project
Transcript of Italian Renaissance Theatre History Project
1400 - 1650 By Sabrina and Heather Themes, Content and Costumes Social and Relevance Influence on Europe Styles of Theatre Classical Theatre Costumes and Mask History and Influences Set Design Theatre Design Physical Theatre and Design 1513 Girolamo Genga (1476-1551) took the first step to designing multi depth settings
Sebastino Serlio wrote Architettura
Teatro Olimpico is the oldest and first enclosed theatre in the world constructed in 1580-1585.
In 1637 in Venice the first Opera house opened for the public.
Theater Lighting and Serlio advice Architects and Engineers were the ones the constructed and organized the sets and Theatres
Set painting and perspective usage
Baldassare Peruzzi in Rome from 1515-1536 Poop There were two major forms of drama in the era: the commedia dell'arte and the commedia d'erudita. Neoclassicism = New classicism
a lot of attention was being given to scholars who were rediscovering classic Roman and Greek theatre
Neoclassicism involves six major themes:
3. Purity of Genres
4. The Three Unities
5. Five Act Form
6. Two Fold Purpose - Just like the plays the actors mirrored those of the Roman and Greek, all female roles were given to males.
- Acting was a full time job, the actors would not have to audition for different roles, once you got one role you became part of an acting troupe.
-Actors were paid fairly well but not nearly as well as anyone part of the royal family. - Italian Renaissance theatre had an influence on sketch comedy and improvisational scenes throughout history.
- Most physical comedy sketches can trace their roots back to Commedia Dell`arte the style of the comedy carried on throughout the years updating in content but retaining the basic fundamentals of the Italian Theatre.
- The structure of italian theaters had changed the way people constructed theatre halls, Italy influenced theatre all over the world with their moving props and perspective stages. - Thanks to the Italian Renaissance Theatre bringing back classic Roman and Greek literature and theatre, a new wave of humanism hit Europe. The Life of an Actor Mathematical Perspective is the art and science of depicting three dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. Unlike Greeks and Romans, the new style of perspective used geometric calculations. It was based on actual measurements of objects and spaces to show depth in a realistic way tempera in the renaissance refers to any material that when mixed with pigment bonded to a surface when it dried ( usually egg yolk mice with a pigment) Renaissance Theatre and Today Commedia dell'arte Commedia d'erudita Commedia dell'arte = comedy of the actors guild
Was popular between the 1550s and the early 1800s
All scenes were improv following a general plot line
Traveling Theatre Companies Stock Characters Arlecchinno Capitano Dottore Stock characters Flavio Pantalone Columbina a style of theatre that was performed by amateurs for high class people
it was classical theatre derived from scholars of the time
the style of theatre had three main innovations Education and Scholars -Latin was most commonly used in formal education so although Greece had an effect on the theatre, Rome was more popular
-The printing press was introduced in Italy in 1465 making it easier to print widespread copies of classic plays including those from Plautus in 1472, Terence in 1473, Seneca between 1474 and 1478, Aristophanes in 1498, Sophocles in 1502, Euripides in 1503 and Aeschylus in 1518 Literature early in the Renaissance many scholars focused on translating classic texts, but some wanted to adapt the traditional Greek techniques into their own pieces
all literature of the time was influenced by both science and philosophy including writer Francesco Petrarch who wrote Latin poetry with pieces like Africa and the Canzioniere - Renaissance Theatre is extremely influential in it's scenery and was extremely influenced by the Romans and the Greeks Historical Influences Early in the Renaissance they still used the Medieval stages; theater was performed in churches and outdoors.
The ancient Greeks sometimes used prospective but they only understood the principal of it partially.
Medieval artists used linear approach to depict different events, in theater the story would unfold using a series of carts set out in the town square. In the Renaissance they had created the unity of time and place through perspective drawing. The scenery on the stage looked like a one realistic space, rather than a group of different spaces. Influential People There were many people who influenced and invented different techniques to revolutionize theatre during the Renaissance Era. Flippo Brunelleschi (1377- 1446) created machines for two performances in Florentine churches, the machines used basic medieval technology but he added a new dimension by locating the principal stage (rep of Heaven) above the heads of the spectators. The use of machines in churches declined during the 16th century.
Conscious knowledge and the use of perspective did not take place till 1525 by Brunelleschi in two of his drawings. Flippo Brunelleschi Other Influential People 1435 and 1436 Leon Battisa Alberti wrote a significant Treatise
rediscovery in 1413 of De Architectura the treatise writing by the Roman architect Vitruvius.
The Medici Family had influenced theater significantly English Script
S: Hello! Welcome to my costume shop, I am Sabrina the Seamstress.
H: Hello! I was wondering if you could help me! I need a costume made for Niccolo Machiavelli’s play, The Mandrake.
S: You have come to the right place! Now tell me, are you rich or a poor character?
H: I’m going to be playing a rich male, my costume will be made out of silk and not wool.
S: Oh, well then I have the perfect costume idea, you will wear an ankle length gown with long stockings held together by a belt. There will be precious stones and jewelry all over it, which were all influenced by Spain.
H: Thank you so much! I will be wearing this with my ankle boots that are sustainable in any weather.
S: No problem! Come back soon! Remember that you have to handle the costumes carefully!
H: I will be on my way now! Bye! Giacomo Torelli - He revolutionized the way to change scenery during a performance and invented helpful machines Ludovico Ariosto (1474 - 1533) Torquato Tasso (1544 - 1595) Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 - 1527) Playwrights and Influences most well known for his poem "Orlando furioso" (1516)
influenced by Roman poets Tibullus and Horace
wrote five comedies: Cassaria (1508), I suppositi (1509), Il negromante (1520), La lena (1529), and I studenti His two most influential pieces were the Aminta (1573) and King Torrismondo (1578)
His most famous poem was Jerusalemme liberata -he was a politician, philosopher and writer who got involved in some very controversial political matters
-he is best known for his adaptations of classical plays and his writings of "the Prince" a political novel and the "Mandragola" Costumes and Fashion Costumes and fashion were derived from the Roman arts
Italian fashion led Europe until 1510 when German and Swiss fashion began to take over in many European countries Gothic was a very popular style although, it never picked up in Italy Costumes and Fashion Men's clothing consisted of a short doublet with hose, an ankle length gown, with shoulder pats and plain shoes. Costumes and Fashion Women pulled hair tightly back from face and concealed it with a hat or hair piece. Elder women used handkerchiefs to hide hair. Costumes and Fashion There were three major contributions to the theatre in this era: 1. Neoclassical ideals
2. Italianate staging and architecture
3. Commedia dell'arte Renaissance Renaissance = rebirth and new thinking
The reformation in England in the 16th century
Italy and the Mediterranean
Playwrights vs. Nobles