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Transcript of Aerobic Respiration
C-C-C Pyruvic Acid
C-C-C Review During glycolysis the glucose molecule is cleaved into two pyruvic acids. During this process, two ATP's and 2 NADH's are created for each pyruvic acid created. Pyruvic Oxidation Pyruvic Acid
C-C-C Acetyl CoA CoA NAD+ NADH C+O2=CO2 1. Pyruvic Acid enters the mitochondrial matrix
2. The PA reacts with Coenzyme A (CoA)
3. The reaction removes a Carbon from the Pyruvic Acid.
4. Two water molecules are introduced and split into O2 and 4H+.
5. 1 H+ combines with the NAD+ to form NADH. The other H+'s are used in the electron transport chain.
6. The O2 combines with the removed Carbon to form Carbon Dioxide.
7. The remaining two carbons form the compound Acetyl CoA. 2H2O 4H+ O2 C-C Definition of Aerobic Respiration:
The process of creating energy through the Krebs cycle and the Electron Transport chain when OXYGEN IS present in the cell. Terminology:
NAD+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (a coenzyme found in all living organisms)
NADH: Same as above plus hydrogen
FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotide
FADH2: Same as above plus 2 hydrogen's 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The Krebs Cycle Acytel CoA CoA Citric Acid CO2 NAD+ NADH Five-Carbon Compund CO2 NAD+ NADH ADP + Phosphate Group ATP Four-Carbon Compound FAD FADH2 Four-Carbon Compound Oxaloacetic Acid c-c c-c-c-c-c-c c-c-c-c-c c-c-c-c c-c-c-c c-c-c-c H+ H+ NAD+ NADH H+ The Krebs Cycle is a biochemical pathway that breaks down Acetyl Co, producing CO2, hydrogen atoms, and ATP. This process was discovered by Hans Krebs (1900-1981), a German biochemist. 1) A two carbon molecule of Acetyl CoA combines with a four-carbon compound (Oxaloacetic Acid) to produce a six-carbon compound (Citric Acid) Coenzyme A is released to be used again. 2) Citric Acid releases a Carbon molecule and it then combines with the two split water molecule's two oxygen atoms to form CO2. The Hydrogen ion then combines with NAD+ to form NADH. The extra 3 Hydrogen Ions are then left in the matrix to later be used in the electron transport chain 3) The Five-Carbon Compound releases a Carbon molecule, which then goes through the process of being turned into NADH (Water Splitting). Also during this process some ADP is synthesized with a phosphate to create some ATP. This then creates a Four-Carbon Compound. 4) The Four-Carbon compound releases 2 Hydrogen atoms from its structure to form a different Four-Carbon compound. Those Hydrogen atoms are then used to reduce FAD to FADH2 5) The Four-Carbon Compound releases a Hydrogen atom to regenerate its self back into Oxaloacetic acid. That Hydrogen is then used in another formation of NADH. Remember: For each molecule of Glucose we go through Pyruvic Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle TWICE because we formed two Pyruvic acids. Thus lets take a count of what we have created so far:
Glycolysis- 2 ATP's
Pyruvic Oxidation- 1 NADH X 2= 2 NADH's
Krebs Cycle- 3NADH's X 2= 6 NADH's
1 ATP X 2= 2 ATP's
1 FADH2 X 2= 2 FADH2's Now lets check to see that we got rid of the Glucose molecule, or six carbons:
1 CO2 X 2= 2 Carbons
The Krebs Cycle-
2 CO2's X 2= 4 Carbons Thus we have totally gotten ride of one molecule of Glucose!! Now why is this important?
Well, in a perfect system we should get 38 ATP's for each molecule of Glucose, but we only have four!? So, the Krebs Cycle was used to charge up the NADH's and the FADH2's to be used in the ELECTRON TRANSPORT TRAIN YEAH!!!! So let's take a look to see how we get our 38 ATP's and then we'll explain WHY we should get 38 ATP's from each Glucose. Totals:
2 FADH2's ATP Synthase H+ 2e- NADH NAD+ FADH2 FAD e- e- H+ H+ H+ (high concentration) ADP + phosphate ATP O2 + (4e-) + (4H+) 2H20 H+ 1) NADH and FADH2 give up electrons to the chain as a means to "power" it. They also give up protons (Hydrogen Ions, H+). 2) The electrons are passed down the chain. As they move from molecule to molecule, they lose energy. Step 2 also occurs here 3) The energy lost from the electrons is used to pump protons from the matrix, building a high concentration of protons between the inner and outer membranes. Thus a concentration gradient is created and an electrical gradient is also created across the inner membrane. 4) The concentration and electrical gradients of protons drive the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis (the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled with ATP synthesis) and as the protons move through the synthase, ADP and a phosphate group found in this synthase are pushed together. Don't get it? Look As the protons move through, they spin this thing As that thing spins, it pushes ADP and Phosphate together 5) Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons from the chain, it also accepts protons that were part of the Hydrogen atoms supplied by NADH and FADH2. The protons, electrons and Oxygen all combine to form water. Electron Transport Chain:
-A series of molecules in a membrane that transfer electrons from one molecule to another. The importance of oxygen:
WITHOUT OXYGEN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN WOULD COME TO A HALT BECAUSE THE ELECTRONS AND HYDROGEN ATOMS USED NEED AN ACCEPTOR TO BIND TO. BY ACCEPTING THE ELECTRONS FROM THE TRANSPORT CHAIN, IT ALLOWS FOR ADDITIONAL ELECTRONS TO CONTINUE PASSING THROUGH THE CHAIN AND CREATING MORE ATP. Now that we have gone through Glycolysis, Pyruvic Oxidation, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain, lets assess what we have achieved in a perfect system that would create 38 ATP's.
Glycolysis- 2ATP's 2NADH's
Pyruvic Oxidation- 1 NADH x 2= 2 NADH's
Krebs Cycle- 3NADH's x 2= 6 NADH's
1 ATP x2= 2 ATP's
1 FADH x2= 2 FADH2's Totals:
2 FADH2's For each NADH molecule we receive 3 ATP's from the transport chain and for each FADH2's we get 2 ATP's. Total ATP:
10 NADH's= 30 ATP's
2 FADH2's= 4 ATP's 38 ATP's * This is in a perfect system, sometimes electrons slip through, or something doesn't happen just right. Efficiency of Cellular respiration: Efficiency of
cellular respiration = Energy required to make ATP Energy released by oxidation of glucose = 38 X 7 kcal 686 kcal X 100% = 39% Considering a car is 25% efficient, the cell is doing pretty good!!! Summary of the entire prezi:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
A Glucose molecule goes through Glycolysis, then Pyruvic oxidation to allow for it to go through the Krebs Cycle. The Krebs Cycle then turns the Glucose molecule into Carbon Dioxide, and in the process creates a new molecule of NADH and FADH2. Those molecules then go through the electron transport chain to pump Hydrogen Ions outside of the matrix, creating a concentration gradient, ALL to simply allow for the Hydrogen Ions to pass through the ATP synthase, pushing ADP and phosphates together, creating ATP!!!!!! Cellular respiration is also important in the creation of compounds that your body may need, for example approximately 10 of the amino acids needed by the human body are made from compounds derived from the Krebs Cycle. Finé http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/bio_animations/MH01_CellularRespiration_Web/index.html