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Copy of Parent-Child Interaction Theory
Transcript of Copy of Parent-Child Interaction Theory
Sensitivity to cues
Alleviation of distress
Providing growth-fostering situations
Clarity of cues
Responsiveness to caregiver/parent
Parent-Child Interaction Model
Kathryn E. Barnard's
psychosocial, physical, and mental health, life changes, expectation and concerns about the child.
Two types of cues:
1. engagement cues
2. disengagement cues
1. subtle disengagement cues
2. potent disengagement cues
Two types of disengagement cues:
The infant’s ability to respond to the caregivers attempts to communicate and interact.
The caregiver’s ability to recognize and respond to the child cues.
The caregiver's ability to soothe or quite a distressed child.
Includes the affective domain and communicates a positive feeling tone.
Acceptance by Nursing Community
Metaparadigm in Nursing
Sign of healthy appearance
Sign of an ill appearance
Born April 16, 1938 in Omaha, Nebraska
B.S. Nursing (1960), M.S. Nursing (1962) at University of Nebraska
Ph.D. (1972) at University of Washington
University of Washington – 1972-Present, Professor of Nursing
University of Washington – 1985-Present, Adjunct Professor of Psychology
Washington State Department of Health – 1987-Present, Principal Investigator
Major Areas of Work:
Infant Mental Health and Development
Member of the American Nurses Association, she was the executive commitee for the Division of Maternal and Child Health Nursing
Lucille Petry Leone Award for Teaching by the National League for Nursing
Martha May Eliot Award for Leadership in Maternal-Child Health
Nurse Scientist of the Year Award.
Recipient of the Cameo Award from Sigma Theta Tau
Feeding and Sleeping Patterns
available (or the lack of) social and financial resources
c. Empirical Precision
d. Derivable Consequences
Cues are the baby's way of trying to tell us something.
Growth and development of children and parent–infant relationships.
Individual characteristics of each member influence the parent–infant system and adaptive behavior modifies those characteristics to meet the needs of the system.
Developing assessment tools to evaluate child health, growth, and development.
care giving style and adaptation skills.
1. To identify problems at a point before they develop and when intervention would be most effective.
2. Social-environmental factors are important for determining child health outcomes.
3. Brief observations of caregiver-infant interaction.
4. A caregiver must have a basic personality and skills in which it is the foundation upon giving care to the child.
5. Caregivers and children modify each others behavior - both are changed.
6. The process of adaptation of caregiver to infant (and infant to caregiver) is more modifiable than the mother or infant's basic characteristics.
7. To promote learning is to respond and elaborate on child-initiated behaviors and reinforces the child's attempt to try new things.
8. To promote a positive early learning environment by nurturing relationship for the helping profession.
9. Assessing the child's social environment.
10. Assessing the child's physical environment.
Child Assessment Interaction Model
Concept and Definition
Who is the theorist?
1966 - " A process by which the patient is assisted in maintenance and promotion of his independence."
1981 - "The diagnosis and treatment of human responses to health problems."
A dynamic state of being in which developmental and behavioral potential of individual is realized to the fullest extent.
Ability to take part in the interaction to which both parts of the dyad bring qualities, skills & responses that affect the interaction.
In essence, the environment includes all experiences encountered by the child: people, objects, places, sounds, visual and tactile sensation.
Metaparadigm in Nursing
Nursing satellite training projects and later videotaped classes used to teach nurses how to use a series of standard assessment instruments.
The Parent-Child Interaction Scales are used in most public health settings in the United States and have been introduced in many foreign countries.
Barnard has continued to refine the assessment scales and continues to conduct research.
The NCAST scales have been used in numerous research studies in both the United States and other countries.
The Child Health Assessment Interaction Model is a simple way of communicating the main focus as it relates to the caregiver-child interaction and the development of accurate assessment tools.
The theory is applicable not only to nursing, but also to other disciplines that deal with the caregiver-child relationship.
The scales were tested for reliability and established as reliable by requiring certified NCAST training clinicians or researchers ensuring a high degree of precision and reliability in the many research studies.
Nurses in the United States and in other countries use the observational skills in daily clinical practice.
Keys to Caregiving
, a series of six self-instructional tapes based on the Barnard model, assist nurses in communicating the knowledge about infant states, cues, and interaction to new parents.