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Transcript of WWI
Nationalism Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente After the Franco-Prussian War, in 1882, Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria-Hungary, during the war they became known as the Central Powers.
In 1893 France and Russia formed an alliance and in 1904 France and Britain signed an entente, during the war they became known as the Allies. Increasing Tension Competition for status and colonies created rivalries, between countries, increasing tension, this brought about the rise of militarism. In 1905 and again in 1911 the competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war in Morocco. In an effort to protect what they had and to gain more teritories countries developed their military might. Assassination ! WAR ! Aggressive nationalism also increased tension.
Germans were very proud of their military and economic powers.
France was bitter over the Franco-Prussian War wanted to recover the border province of Alsace and Lorraine.
Russia was proud of their Slavic nationality, supporting Serbia as a sister Slavic country.
Both Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire felt threatened by the rise in nationalism, fearing that it would foster rebellion among thier populations. Tension Continued June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinan (heir to the Austrian emperor) visited Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia) with his wife. He ignored warnings and rode through Sarajevo in an open car. Both were killed by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand (a Serbian terrorist group) Serbian Austria-Hungary relations Bosnia in 1914 was ruled by Austria-Hungary . Austrian-Hungarian rule angered many Serbian nationalists who saw the Austrians as "Foreign opressors." Their deaths sparked the war. Austria retaliates Germany gave Austria a promise of unconditional support no matter the cost. Therefore Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the assassination or else war. Serbia did not want to meet some of the demands therefore Austria officially declared war on July 28, 1914. Since Russia and France were allies with Serbia they suported Serbia against Austria- Hungary and Germany, by mobilizing for war.
Germany being Austria-Hungary's ally declares war on Russia then France after the French would not back down. Alliances Invasion Germany had the Schlieffen plan which was designed to avoid a two front war. Strike and defeat one front before the other has time to even mobalze. Step 1: Invade Belgium (who had been neutral) and make your way to Paris Outraged by invasion of Belgium Britian entered the war War Enthusiasm A renewed sense of patriotism united countries, most noteably those with domestic problems. Governments emphisized that they were fighting for justice and a better world. This fuled a glorified idea of war. Modern War Western Front Technology Eastern and Southern Front Making it a WORLD War Russia the Eastern Front The Southern Front Ottoman Empire Colonies around the world The Failure of the Schlieffen Plan The Schlieffen plan failed for several reasons
1. Belgians fought more than they had counted on
2. Russia mobilized more quickly then expected
British and French troops pushed the Germans back along the Marne River both sides dug trenches to protect themselves
Resulting in a stalemate German U-boats (submarines) sunk merchant ships carrying supplies to Britain. To protect themselves from the submarines the Allies organized convoys (groups of merchant ships protected by warships) No trench warfare, but just as indecisive as the western front. Casualties rose higher than on the Western front.
Russia was ill prepared to fight, they were the least equipped to fight a modern war but, Russian commanders still sent masses of soldiers into combat. 1915: Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped defeat Serbia
Romania joined the Allies in 1916 hoping to gain land in Hungary, they were defeated by the Central Powers.
In 1915 Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary and later on Germany. Secretly the Allies signed a a treaty to give Italy some of the Austrian ruled lands inhabited by Italians. What do you know about WWI? What implications does fighting a multiple front war have on the Central Powers? On the Allies? The Great War a dead lock in which neither side is able to defeat the other Stalemate August 1914 Russia pushes into Germany.
Russia defeated at Tannenberg defeat pushing the Russians back. Tannenberg Caporetto In October 1917 the Central Powers attacked the Italian position at Caporetto (on the Isonzo River)
Italians retreated, British and French forces came in to to stop the Central Powers advance. October 1914 the Ottoman Empire join the Central Powers.
They cut off the supply routes of the Russians which were through the Dardanelles, a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Gallipoli 1915 the Allies send forces to open the strait. The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) traped them at Gallipoli.
January 1916 Allies withdraw from the strait, after ten months of fighting and 200,000 casualties
The Middle East 1916, Arab nationalists lead by Husayn ibn Ali revolted. Britain sent T.E. Lawrence to support the Arabs, he lead guerrilla raids against the Turks. He was later known as Lawrence of Arabia Ottoman Empire multiple fronts The Allies overran the German Colonies in Africa and Asia.
The Allies got troops, supplies and labor from their colonies, for example
Canada, Australia and New Zealand sent troops to Britain's aid.
many expected that their service would be a step toward citizen ship or independence Propaganda Why was there compitition for colonies? What did the imperial power gain from having colonies? Militarily? Why/ how could one man's death start a World War?
Would this be possible today? What has happened thus far in WWI? Describe three ways in which technology affected the war. Why did a stalemate develop on the Western Front? Questions 1. List the 4 main causes of WWI.
2.Who were the Central Powers? Who were teh Allies? (3 countries each)
3. How did Archduke Ferdinan spark the war?
4. Explain the Schlieffen plan. ( Give at least 3 points)
5. How was war viewed in 1914? How do you think the idea of war has changed? How has it stayed the same? 1915: Germany used zeppelins (large gas-filled balloons) to bomb England Both sides used airplanes with machine guns, in "dogfights" AIR LAND From 1914- 1918 the Western Front was a vast system of trenches. 1916: Britain introduced the first armored tank mounted with machine guns Poison gas was first used in 1915 by the Germans but was soon adopeted by the Allies. SEA Turkey was also fighting Russia in the Caucasus mountains, home to the Armenians.
In 1914 Russia advanced, many Turkish Armenians helped the Russians against the Turks. In retaliation the Ottoman Empire deported all Armenians south to Syria and Mesopotamia ( 600,000-1.5 mill Armenians died). Ottoman Empire and the Middle East
In 1916 Germany tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun after 11 months there were almost half a million casualties.
At the Somme River nearly 60,000 British were killed or wounded in a single day, after five months more than 1 million were killed.
Neither resulted in a gain by either side. The battle lines in France would remain almost unchanged for four years. 7 8 3 4 1 2 What is the goal of each?
What is the technique used by each? Examples Name Calling
Appeal to Prejudice
Humor Propaganda Techniques 9 10 5 6 Techniques and Examples
by Mr.Green WW I Propaganda