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Concept Map for Rocks, Minerals and Soil.

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Ellen Daly

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Concept Map for Rocks, Minerals and Soil.

Isabel Schiefferle's Concept Map
Concept Map for Rocks, Minerals and Soil.
Purpose: To show the relationship rocks,
minerals and soil have with one another.

1.hard mineral aggregate: any consolidated material consisting of more than one mineral and, sometimes, organic material, e.g. granite or limestone
2.projecting mass of rock: a large mass of mineral material, especially an isolated or projecting one

1.inorganic substance in nature: a substance that occurs naturally in rocks and in the ground and has its own characteristic appearance and chemical composition
2.mined substance: a naturally occurring substance that is mined or extracted from the ground

The 5 characteristics of a mineral:

- Solid
- Naturally Occurring
- Inorganic
- Definite Chemical Composition
- Crystal Structure

types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
Rocks formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten materials. Igneous rocks can form beneath the Earth's surface, or at its surface, as lava.
A Horizon - Surface soil: Layer of mineral soil with most organic matter accumulation and soil life.

B Horizon - Subsoil: This layer accumulates iron, clay, aluminum and organic compounds, a process referred to as illuviation.

C Horizon - Layer of large unbroken rocks. This layer may accumulate the more soluble compounds .
Characteristics of Soil
Soil is a thin layer of material on the Earth's surface in which plants have their roots. It is made up of many things, such as weathered rock and decayed plant and animal matter. Soil is formed over a long period of time.

Soil Formation takes place when many things interact, such as air, water, plant life, animal life, rocks, and chemicals.

1.top layer of land: the top layer of most of the Earth's land surface, consisting of the unconsolidated products of rock erosion and organic decay, along with bacteria and fungi
2.type of earth: earth or ground of a particular kind

Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.
Parts of Rocks are in Soil
Minerals make up Rocks
Foliation in geology refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks
Pressure, like temperature, changes a rock’s mineralogy and texture in a predictable manner
Heat + Pressure
A non-foliated rock is a metamorphic rock that does not display a lamellar texture or distinct light and dark banding common to foliated metamorphic rocks.
Igneous rocks which form by the crystallization of magma at a depth within the Earth are called intrusive rocks
the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava.
Melting plus Cooling
Melting and cooling is the process in which a igneous rock is formed.
Magma is capable of intrusion into adjacent rocks (forming igneous dikes and sills), extrusion onto the surface as lava, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock
Magma & Lava
An organic sedimentary rock are made up of sediments formed from plant or animal life. These are made up of layers of organisms
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Chemical sedimentary rocks are rocks that are not made up of sediment but of mineral crystals made from elements that have been dissolved in water.
The process that forms a sedimentary rock.
Weathering & Erosion
7 Properties
The Physical properties of minerals are used by Mineralogists to help determine the identity of a specimen. Some of the tests can be performed easily in the field, while others require laboratory equipment.
Luster is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal.
The streak (also called "powder color") of a mineral is the color of the powder.
The color of a mineral is an easily observed physical property.
Cleavage and fracture are descriptions of how a mineral breaks into pieces.
The primary method of classification of crystals. The crystal system classifies crystals into six distinct groups.
Crystal Shape (System)
Hardness is measured by the resistance which a smooth surface offers to abrasion.
Mohs Hardness Scale
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. It is rated on a scale of 1 to 10.
Rock Cycle
The rock cycle is the natural process in which rocks transform from one rock type into another rock type over time, a type of natural recycling.
Soil texture is a qualitative classification tool used in both the field and laboratory to determine classes for agricultural soils based on their physical texture.

Soil color is the most obvious and easily determined soil characteristic.
Soils are a mixture of different things; rocks, minerals, and dead, decaying plants and animals.
The permeability of a soil measures how well air and water can flow within the soil.
Soil porosity is the volume percentage of pore spaces in a lump of soil that is not occupied.
Soil Conservation
Soil conservation is a combination of all methods of management and land use that safeguard the soil against depletion or deterioration by natural or man-induced factors.

Organic Matter
Organic matter, along with water, air and minerals, is one of the building blocks of soil. It consists of decaying plant matter and the remains of once-living microbes such as bacteria and fungi.
Mass in a given space or mass per unit volume.
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