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Music History & Literature
Transcript of Music History & Literature
753 BCE - Founding of Rome
The history of Ancient Greece,
and the roots of our western civilization go back to the stone age!
We'll skip all that and focus on the
Classical Age of Greece - Circa 450 BCE
Romulus and Remus were twin brothers. They were abandoned by their parents as babies and put into a basket that was then placed into the River Tiber. The basket ran aground and the twins were discovered by a female wolf. The wolf nursed the babies for a short time before they were found by a shepherd. The shepherd then brought up the twins.
When Romulus and Remus became adults, they decided to found a city where the wolf had found them. The brothers quarrelled over where the site should be and Remus was killed by his brother. This left Romulus the sole founder of the new city and he gave his name to it – Rome. The date given for the founding of Rome is 753 BC.
Doctrine of Ethos
A statement of beliefs regarding the effect of music on a person's character and behavior.
"of the Muses"
- prompt action
- suspend 'normal' will power making a
person unaware of his/her actions
- influence a person's moral development
The Muses were the
daughters of Zeus!
THEY inspired the arts.
The human mind couldn't
have created such beauty!
c. 450 BC
Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; c. 27 February 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity,[notes 4] Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all religions throughout the empire.
In June 474, Julius Nepos became Western Emperor but in the next year the magister militum Orestes revolted and made his son Romulus Augustus emperor. Romulus, however, was not recognized by the Eastern Emperor Zeno and so was technically an usurper, Nepos still being the legal Western Emperor. Nevertheless, Romulus Augustus is often known as the last Western Roman Emperor. In 476, after being refused lands in Italy, Orestes' Germanic mercenaries under the leadership of the chieftain Odoacer captured and executed Orestes and took Ravenna, the Western Roman capital at the time, deposing Romulus Augustus. The whole of Italy was quickly conquered, and Odoacer was granted the title of patrician by Zeno, effectively recognizing his rule in the name of the Eastern Empire. Odoacer returned the Imperial insignia to Constantinople and ruled as King in Italy. Following Nepos' death Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, conquered Italy with Zeno's approval.
Meanwhile, much of the rest of the Western provinces were conquered by waves of Germanic invasions, most of them being disconnected politically from the East altogether and continuing a slow decline. Although Roman political authority in the West was lost, Roman culture would last in most parts of the former Western provinces into the 6th century and beyond.
The Medieval Period
The Middle Ages
The Medieval Period
The Dark Ages
Music had been a part of the world's civilizations for hundreds of years before the Middle Ages. Primitive cave drawings, stories from the Bible, and Egyptian heiroglyphs all attest to the fact that people had created instruments and had been making music for centuries.
The word music derives from the ancient Greek muses, the nine goddesses of art and science. The first study of music as an art form dates from around 500 B.C., when Pythagoras experimented with acoustics and the mathematical relationships of tones. In so doing, Pythagoras and others established the Greek modes: scales comprised of whole tones and half steps.
With the slow emergence of European society from the dark ages between the fall of the Roman empire and the predominance of the Catholic Church, dozens of "mini-kingdoms" were established all over Europe, each presided over by a lord who had fought for and won the land. Mostly through superstitious fear, early Catholic leaders were able to claim absolute power over these feudal lords. The Church was able to dictate the progress of arts and letters according to its own strictures and employed all the scribes, musicians and artists. At this time, western music was almost the sole property of the Catholic Church.
The Saint Benetictine Abbey
Benetictine Rule: Poverty, obedience, and charity
This 'order' studied music, why? -Because music
can influence human ethics. Why would they think
Guido de Arezzo - 995-1050
* six note scale
Gregorian Chant is:
- a cappella
- in Latin
- has a narrow range
- is modal
- is monophonic
vocal music only
language of the
until the 1960's
the interval from
the lowest to
highest notes was
sung in one of
the Church Modes;
Music Intended for Relegious Worship
The Vocabulary of Christianity
an abbey; a home for an
order of nuns
an abbey; a home for an
order of monks or priests
a home in which a relegious
order live and pray as a
a male member of a
relegious order and
a female member of a
relegious order and
a male member of a
relegious order usually
acting to serve a congregation
a relegious group/community
with a common purpose or
the official language of
the Christian, then
Catholic church until the
the Greek word for
'universal'; a reference to
one god for all creation
the liturgy of the
Catholic Church AND
a musical form!
the words / songs that
are a relegious ceremony
the "literature" of the rite
1098 Hildegard von Bingen 1179
chant Gregorian Chant plainsong
The Music of Notre Dame
Decline of the Church / Rise of the Court
early form of polyphonic music (polyphony) which evolved through the efforts of Leoninus and Perotinus
The Doctrine of Ethos
The Fall of Rome
Same every time!
Different for each day.
all NON-relegious music
Secular Musicians of the Day
Secular Musical Forms of the Day Included:
570 Mohammed 632
History of the Gregorian Calendar
The recommendations of Pope Gregory's calendar commission were instituted by the papal bull "Inter Gravissimus," signed on 1582 February 24. Ten days were deleted from the calendar, so that 1582 October 4 was followed by 1582 October 15, thereby causing the vernal equinox of 1583 and subsequent years to occur about March 21. And a new table of New Moons and Full Moons was introduced for determining the date of Easter.
Anyone seriously interested in the Gregorian calendar should study the collection of papers resulting from a conference sponsored by the Vatican to commemorate the four-hundredth anniversary of the Gregorian Reform (Coyne et al., 1983).
Rome Conquers Greece
name after the city-states where they developed
Dorian from Doria
Phrygian from Phrygia
Lydian from Lydia
Aeloian from Aeolia
Locrian from Locris
Ionian from Ionia
Ionian became our Major Scale
Aeolian became our Minor Scale
The Triumphs of Oriana
English Madrigals -
a music composition
technique with which
the composer tries to
use the music to mimic
or enhance the meaning
of the lyrics
a music composition
technique with which
the composer has all the singers sing the same rhythm to emphasis the phrase or word being sung
The Protestant Reformation
The Counter- Reformation
focus on human accomplishments
and things of the natural world
allowed in the Catholic Church
many based on older chants
polyphonic / homophonic
the Art and Liturature
of the Ancient Greeks
A form of musical theater adapted from ancient Greece (of course)
recitative - secco / accompanied
themes / motif / leit motif
"type cast" voices
scenery / costumes
Musical Drama - Like a play set to music
a secular or sacred choral drama accompanied by a small ensemble (continuo) similar to a modern 'rhythm section'
a sacred choral drama accompanied by an orchestra and usually based on a story from the Old Testament
Short Time - BIG MUSIC!
Haydn - Mozart - Beethoven
Is a COMPOUND FORM
It has 4 MOVEMENTS
Independent Parts of a compound form
Sonata - Allegro Form
A - Exposition
B - Development
A - Recapitulation
a. - main theme: usually rhythmic
b. - lyrical theme
joined by connecting material called a "bridge"
in contrast to the exposition, this is a section in which variations of the main and lyrical themes are heard in variations of their original
usually an exact or very close copy of the exposition
Sonata for Orchestra
September 2, 1752, was a great day in the history of sleep.
That Wednesday evening, millions of British subjects in England and the colonies went peacefully to sleep and did not wake up until twelve days later. Behind this feat of narcoleptic prowess was not some revolutionary hypnotic technique or miraculous pharmaceutical discovered in the West Indies. It was, rather, the British Calendar Act of 1751, which declared the day after Wednesday the second to be Thursday the fourteenth.
Prior to that cataleptic September evening, the official British calendar differed from that of continental Europe by eleven days—that is, September 2 in London was September 13 in Paris, Lisbon, and Berlin. The discrepancy had sprung from Britain's continued use of the Julian calendar, which had been the official calendar of Europe since its invention by Julius Caesar (after whom it was named) in 45 B.C.
Caesar's calendar, which consisted of eleven months of 30 or 31 days and a 28-day February (extended to 29 days every fourth year), was actually quite accurate: it erred from the real solar calendar by only 11½ minutes a year. After centuries, though, even a small inaccuracy like this adds up. By the sixteenth century, it had put the Julian calendar behind the solar one by 10 days.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII ordered the advancement of the calendar by 10 days and introduced a new corrective device to curb further error: century years such as 1700 or 1800 would no longer be counted as leap years, unless they were (like 1600 or 2000) divisible by 400.
If somewhat inelegant, this system is undeniably effective, and is still in official use in the United States. The Gregorian calendar year differs from the solar year by only 26 seconds—accurate enough for most mortals, since this only adds up to one day's difference every 3,323 years.
Despite the prudence of Pope Gregory's correction, many Protestant countries, including England, ignored the papal bull. Germany and the Netherlands agreed to adopt the Gregorian calendar in 1698; Russia only accepted it after the revolution of 1918, and Greece waited until 1923 to follow suit. And currently many Orthodox churches still follow the Julian calendar, which now lags 13 days behind the Gregorian.
Read more: The Gregorian Calendar—History http://www.infoplease.com/spot/gregorian1.html#ixzz2Dzl4tkpS
A composition for 1 to 8 Instruments,
usually in 3 or 4
Independent parts of a
The Holy Book of Islam
Muslim House of Worship
The Islamic Call to Worship
Muezzin Performing the Adhan
1) The first verse of chapter 96. In the oldest surviving biography of Prophet Muhammad, Ibn Hisham (d. 218 H / 833 CE) states that Gabriel appeared to Muhammad one night when he was sleeping in a cave on a mountain called Hira’ in Mecca, where he used to go for a spiritual retreat for a month every year (see my article One Night in a Cave that Changed History Forever). Carrying a book, Gabriel commanded him to “read.” Muhammad refused the order twice before finally asking about what he was supposed to read. Gabriel replied with following verses of the Qur’an:
Read [O Muhammad!] in the name of your Lord who created. (96.1) He created man from a clot. (96.2) Read, and your Lord is the Most Honorable (96.3) who taught with the pen. (96.4)
Muhammad then recited the verses in his sleep. When he woke up, he felt as if the words had been engraved on his heart. On his way down from the mountain, the Prophet heard a voice from heaven saying: “O Muhammad! You are the messenger of Allah, and I am Gabriel.”
The Seven Liberal Arts
The Classical Education
music, geometry, astronomy,arithmetic
language, grammar, philosophy
Gregorian Chant Plainsong Syllabic Singing Melismatic Singing Organum Mass Proper - Ordinary Troubadour Trouvere Minnesinger Chanson Rondeau Sackbut Shawm Cornetto
The Age of Enlightenment
This Way to The Dance!
Renaissance Dance -
When you hear the word 'dance,' I'll bet you think of, oh, let's say - - DANCING!!!
The music written for dancing is called
FUNCTIONAL DANCE MUSIC.
Here's a list of just a few
If it sounds kind of like dance music
with stops and starts, etc., which would make
dancing awkward, it's probably
Stylized Dance Music
FOR THE RECORD
“As Vesta Was Descending” offers up a hodgepodge of images from classical
mythology, for example: the Roman goddess Vesta, on her way down Mount Latmos,
sees Oriana/Elizabeth ascending the hill; the nymphs and shepherds attending the
goddess Diana run away to sing Oriana’s praises. The whole point of this rather
lightweight verse is to provide opportunity for word painting. The word “descending” is
sung to downward scales and “ascending,” to upward ones. When Vesta's attendants
run down the hill in twos, threes, and larger groups, the setting is for two voices, then
three voices, then six voices. A solo voice laments that the goddess is left “all alone.”
In the extended concluding section, “Long live fair Oriana,” a joyous phrase is imitated
among the voices. In the bass this phrase is sung in long notes, with the longest note
on the word “long.” The length of time dedicated to this proclamation, about one third of
the composition, is indicative of the ultimate purpose of the composition, to flatter the