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The Protestant Reformation
Transcript of The Protestant Reformation
Less than 10 years after Luther's famous 95 theses, the Catholic Church would face another challenge coming from England.
The Counter Reformation
Some historians call the changes that the church instituted the
- the church reforming itself. Others see this event as the time when the Church launched its counter-attack - the
The Protestant Reformation
The Early Reformation
Problems in the Catholic Church
Popes were consumed in worldly affairs, such as:
Spending extravagantly on personal pleasure
The Reformation Continues
Calvin begins another Church
In 1521, John Calvin was only 12 when Luther stood trial at Worms. Born in France, Calvin would give order to the new faith that Luther had begun.
Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the expansion of printing challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge.
Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of public concern to one of private belief over the course of European history.
What were the central ideas of the reformers
and why were they appealing to different
Pope Pius II admitted, "If the truth be confessed, the luxury and pomp of our courts is too great."
Later, Pope Alexander VI admitted he had many children.
Many priests and monks could not even read Latin, and when they gave mass, they mumbled the words they had memorized, not really reading the Bible. Many priests and monks had mistresses, drank, and gambled.
German monk, and professor of catholic theology at the University of Wittenberg.
Believed that salvation was gained from "faith alone".
Final straw came when a friar named Johann Tetzel was going around Wittenberg selling
to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
Luther Challenges the Church
Early calls for reform
Early reformers such as John Wycliff and
Jan Hus advocated church reform. They denied
the Pope's authority, and taught that the Bible
had more authority than men from the Vatican.
What did John Wycliff
and Jan Hus teach?
Most famous and celebrated of all Christian Humanists.
Father of Christian Humanism
Master of Greek language, one of Europe's foremost authorities.
Wrote new translations of the Bible into Greek and Latin.
Praise of Folly - by Erasmus
Best-seller. Only the Bible sold more.
Satirized, or criticized, immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders.
Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it.
The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther.
What was the name of
Erasmus' book? What did it say?
Printing Press (1450)
Invented by the German Johan
Gutenberg. It revolutionized Europe
by dramatically increasing literacy,
particularly among the poor.
The Bible was the first book printed.
Cheaper bookmaking - literacy widespread.
Faster bookmaking - many books published in vernacular languages, instead of Latin.
The 95 Theses
Luther was troubled by Tetzel's tactics.
Oct 31, 1517. Posted 95 theses
on church door in Wittenberg.
Criticized the church.
Challenged other scholars to debate him.
1000's of copies printed and distributed throughout Germany - this began the Reformation.
The 95 Theses
People could win salvation only by faith in
God's gift of forgiveness. The Church taught
that faith AND "good works" were needed for
All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. The pope and church traditions were false authorities.
All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.
What did ONE of Luther's
95 theses say?
Martin Luther biography
Martin Luther was sometimes unhappy as a child. Like many parents of that time, his father and mother were very strict. Luther later told stories of their beatings.
In one way, fear led Luther to become a monk. His father wanted him to go to law school, but at the age of 21, Luther was caught in a terrible thunderstorm. Lightning struck close to him. Convinced he would die, he cried out, "Saint Anne, help me! I will become a monk."
Even as a monk, Luther felt sinful, lost, and rejected by God. He confessed his sins regularly, fasted, and did penance. However, by studying the Bible, Luther came to the conclusion that faith alone was the key to salvation. Only then did he experience peace. -World History textbook
Luther wanted German princes to overthrow papal power, and establish a german church.
1521 - Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X
Summoned by Emperor Carlos V (Charles) of Spain to the german town of Worms to stand trial (Diet of Worms).
The Response to Luther
In a crowded hall, Luther was told to take
back his statements. Luther refused:
"I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen."
Edict of Worms
Carlos V issues the Edict of Worms, making Luther an outlaw.
Luther kept in hiding by his prince.
Luther gains followers
People liked the idea of reading the Bible for themselves.
Anticlericalism was widespread across Europe, particularly in Germany.
His followers began implementing his ideas
; mass was given in German, not Latin, priests dressed in ordinary clothes and married since they were allowed to wed.
His followers were called Lutherans.
Soon after the Reformation began, the number of people executed for being witches rose dramatically. From 1561 to 1670 in Germany, 3,229 people accused of witchcraft were burned at the stake. Between 1559 and 1736 in England, almost 1,000 witches were put to death. Eighty percent of the people accused of witchcraft were women.
-World History Textbook
Peasants' (Anabaptists) Revolt
Inspired by the revolutionary feeling in the air, German peasants sought to free themselves from serfdom, and went around towns pillaging and burning everything.
Luther was opposed to the senseless destruction.
He wrote a pamphlet titled "Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants".
He supported a crackdown where 100,000 peasants died.
Germany at War
German princes that supported Luther became known as Protestants.
Other german princes that preferred to remain Catholic aligned themselves with Carlos V.
Carlos V went to war against the Protestant princes. Although he defeated them in 1547, he failed to force them to return to Catholicism.
Protestant princes and Carlos V sign
Peace of Augsburg
What SPRITE factors can be found
in the early reformation?
What was the Diet of Worms?
Luther gains followers - Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli - priest from Switzerland
Banned all religious images and relics
Whitewashed all church interiors
No church music during mass
Did not align completely with Luther because both men couldn't agree on the meaning of the last supper.
Zwingli: bread and wine of the Lord's
last supper merely SYMBOLIZED
the body and blood of Christ.
Match the a sentence with the correct letter.
YOU MUST COPY SENTENCES AND ANSWERS!
1. Edict of Worms declared him an outlaw. b. indulgences
2. To change c. reform
3. Goes against official Church teachings d. Erasmus
4. Father of Christian Humanism e. Martin Luther
5. Sins forgiven in exchange for money f. Zwingli
The Spread of Protestant Ideas
Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefited from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onward.
How did Protestant ideas and
institutions spread beyond German-
Political, not religious, motives for reform.
Henry VIII, King of England, needs a male heir to the throne
to continue the Tudor Dynasty
Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Carlos V).
Mary is born - dashing Henry's goal.
As result, Henry wants to divorce Catherine and marry his mistress Anne Boleyn.
Henry VIII Wants a Son
Problem: Pope Clement VIII refused to annul the marriage.
Result: Henry removed England from the Pope's authority, put himself as head of the Anglican Church (Act of Supremacy).
Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer grants the divorce.
Henry VIII Wants a Son
Anne Boleyn also gave birth to a girl...
what do you think happened next?
Henry got tired of her, and...
locked her up in a tower, then...
got it over with and beheaded her.
It's not over...
Henry VIII was feeling lonely, so he married
another woman, which finally gave birth to an
heir, Edward. BUT...
The third wife dies of complications. Poor Henry VIII
is feeling lonely again, so he marries another woman...BUT, he soon tires of her and divorces her...
FINALLY, Henry VIII got lonely again and he
wasn't getting any younger (50 years old), so
he married his fifth wife...BUT, he tires of her too,
so he beheaded her...it's still not over...
Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived.
Henry VIII and his wives
Elizabeth I, the "Virgin Queen", daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
Takes throne after Mary dies.
Strong protestant views.
Never married. Used possibility of marriage for politics.
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism
1547 - Henry VIII dies.
Edward VI, Henry's son, takes the throne.
Becomes Protestant, angering Catholics.
1553 - Edward dies.
Mary, Catherine of Aragon's daughter, takes the throne.
Mary is a devout Catholic.
Nicknamed "Bloody Mary" after burning 300+ Protestants at the stake.
Increases tensions between Catholics and Protestants.
La Armada Invencible, the "invincible armada", sent by Phillip II of Spain to invade England.
The Armada is humiliatingly defeated by England.
This marks the end of Spain's dominance, and beginning of England as the world's new superpower.
Spain vs England: The Spanish Armada
Poor Henry, feeling lonely again, marries his sixth wife...lucky for her, she outlives him (he died that same year), otherwise...
In case you forgot...
What was the name of the Pope that
excommunicated Martin Luther?
What was the name of the city
where Martin Luther was a university
What was the name of Henry VIII's
Why was Mary Tudor given the nickname
What SPRITE factors can be found
in the spread of protestant ideas to England?
When Henry VIII became king in 1509, he was young, strong, handsome, and intelligent. He loved sports, literature, music, and food. He also loved his Roman Catholic faith.
In 1521, he wrote a pamphlet attacking Martin Luther and his teachings. Impressed by Henry's loyalty, the pope gave him a special title, " Defender of the Faith."
Even Henry's relifious actions were driven by political ambition. One of his motives for defending Catholicism was to keep up with his fellow European monarchs. Earlier popes had granted Spanish monarchs the title "Catholic Sovereigns" and French monarchs the title "Most Christian." Although Henry was proud of his papal honor, eventually his political needs drove him to break with the Church. -World History, McDougal Litell
Elizabeth I was the third of Henry VIII's
children to rule England. Like her father, Elizabeth had a fierce temper and a rbust nature. Athletic as a girl, she showed amazing energy and strength in her sixties.
Whe the Spanish Armada threatened England, Elizabeth rode into the camp of soldiers preparing to defend their country. For this occasion, she wore her brightest red wig adorned with two white plumes that were easy for all to see aboe the doldier's long pikes.
From her horse, Elizabeth gave encouragement to her soldiers:
"I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England, too, and I think foul scorn of...any prince of Europe who should dare invade the borders of my realm."
-World History, McDougal Litell
How many wives did Henry VIII
What was the Act of Supremacy?
, [Explain how and why religion shifted from a matter of public concern to one of private belief over the course of European history.]
How were Protestant churches founded in
traditionally Catholic areas of Europe?
Calvinism: the religion based on Calvin's teachings. Much more strict than Lutheranism.
Published a book called Institutes of the Christian Religion. The book expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature.
Believed in Predestination, the idea that God already knew who would be saved (Elects).
In this way, Calvin agreed with Luther that humans cannot earn salvation with their actions.
Calvin and his teachings
Believed that the ideal government was a Theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders.
In France, Calvin's followers were called Huguenots.
There was bitter hatred between Catholics and Huguenots.
On August 24, 1572, Catholic mobs massacred 12,000 Huguenots.
Calvin and his Teachings
A preacher from Scotland named John Knox visited Calvin. He instituted Calvinism in Scotland.
His followers became known as Presbyterians.
The word means "baptize again."
Believed that Christians should only be baptized during adulthood.
Believed in seperation of church and state.
Refused to fight in wars.
They later became the Mennonites, Amish.
Other Reformers: The Anabaptists
What two major ideas did John Calvin
Who were the Huguenots?
What were the SPRITE factors as new Protestant
churches were created?
Unlike Luther, Calvin wrote little about his personal life. A quiet boy, he grew up to studey law and philosophy at the University of Paris. Ealy in the 1530's, he came under the influence of French followers of Luther. When King Francis I ordered these Protestants arrested, Calvin fled. Eventually, he made his way to Geneva, Switzerland.
Calvin and his followers rigidly regulated morality in Geneva. Perhaps because of this, Calvinism is often described as strict and grim. However, Calvin taught that people should enjoy God's gifts. He wrote that it was not:
"anywhere forbidden to laugh or to enjoy food, or to add new possessions to old...or to be delighted with musical harmonies, or to drink wine." -World History, McDougal Litell
The Catholic Reformation
How did the Catholic Church respond to the
new religious situation?
What are 2 of John Calvin's main ideas?
Who were the Anabaptists? What were their main beliefs?
Who were the Huguenots? What happened to them?
A tough Spanish knight who founded a religious order called the Society of Jesus, Jesuits
Sociedad de Jesús, Jesuitas
Published the book
- about discipline, regular confession, and excellence in everything.
Known as the 'shock troops' of the counter reformation. They were so effective as missionaries that both Protestants AND Catholics were suspicious of them.
Ignacio de Loyola
Pope Paul IV called all the top church officials to meet to reform the church.This was the result:
One single, uniform mass for use throughout the world.
An improved translation of the Bible.
You still needed the church, and NO to predestination.
Bishops should live in their diocese and check on their clergy regularly.
Clergy should preach a proper sermon every week.
NO MORE concubines!!!
Council of Trent
Monastic reformer, theologian, & mystic.
Emphasized the importance of monasteries and spirituality, of communing with God through mysticism.
Believed in simplicity:
SHE DID NOT WEAR SHOES!!!
The Revival of Spirituality - AP Euro skip
If any one shall say, that man may be justified before God by his own works, whether done through the strength of human nature, or through the teaching of law, without the divine grace through Jesus Christ;
LET HIM BE ANATHEMA
-Canon I on Justification
If any one shall say, that, since Adam's sin, the free will of man is lost and extinguished; or, that it is a thing with a name only, a title without a reality, a figment...
LET HIM BE ANATHEMA
. - Canon V on Justification
Saint Teresa of Avila
Ecstasy of St. Teresa
What SPRITE factors can be
found in the Catholic Reformation
Name 3 results from the Council of Trent (without
looking at your notes!)
What was the name of the religious order that
What did Saint Teresa of Avila