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Advantages of Using Database Approach vs Traditional File Pr
Transcript of Advantages of Using Database Approach vs Traditional File Pr
Traditional File Processing
Example Of Database Approach
The database approach is to store data about an entity (i.e. student) only one time, so that if the data changes we only have to change one location, as well as if we need to get a piece of information about that entity (student) we know the one location where it is stored. All applications share the same data!
By: Ijah Brown & Renisha Daley
What Is A File Processing System?
A file processing system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. File processing systems may use a storage device such as a hard disk or CD-ROM and involve maintaining the physical location of the files.
Example Of File Processing Approach
Each application such as sales by salesperson, invoicing, payroll all maintained their own files to store their data. This can lead to significant duplication of data and the problem of updating all files if a piece of data (i.e. address for a sales person in both the payroll and commissions files).
Duplicate data is know as DATA REDUNDANCY
Characteristics Of The File Processing System
It is a group of files storing data of an organization/ business.
Each file is independent from one another.
Each file is called a flat file (when there is only a single table in the database).
Each file contained and processed information for one specific function, such as accounting or inventory.
Files are designed by using programs written in programming languages such as COBOL, C, C++.
The physical implementation and access procedures are written into database application; therefore, physical changes resulted in intensive rework on the part of the programmer.
As systems became more complex, file processing systems offered little flexibility, presented many limitations, and were difficult to maintain.
Advantages of The File Processing System
Easy to use.
It keeps files organized for a business either alphabetically or numerical.
Disadvantages of The File Processing System
Duplication of data:
Often the same information is stored in more than one file.
Duplication is wasteful. It costs time and money to enter the data more than once
It takes up additional storage space, again with associated costs.
Duplication can lead to loss of data integrity; in other words the data is no longer consistent.
In file processing systems, files and records were described by specific physical formats that were coded into the application program by programmers. If the format of a certain record was changed, the code in each file containing that format must be updated. Furthermore, instructions for data storage and access were written into the application's code. Therefore, .changes in storage structure or access methods could greatly affect the processing or results of an application
Difficulty in representing data from the user's view:
To create useful applications for the user, often data from various files must be combined. In file processing it was difficult to determine relationships between isolated data in order to meet user requirements.
Disadvantages of The File Processing System Cont'd
Program-data interdependency and data isolation, limited the flexibility of file processing systems in providing users with ad-hoc(done for a particular purpose) information requests
Incompatible file formats:
As the structure of files is embedded in the application programs, the structures are dependent on the application programming language.
The security of data is low in file based system because, the data is maintained in the flat file(s) is easily accessible.
What Is A Database?
A database is a collection of data or information which is held together in a logical or organized way.
They are designed to offer an organized mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving information.
Characteristics Of The Database
A command language that allows you to create, delete and alter the database.
A way of documenting all the internal stuctures that make up the database (data dictionary).
A language to support the manipulation and processing of data.
Support the ability to view database from different viewpoints according to the requirement of the user.
Provide some level of security and access control to the data.
Advantages Of Database
Advantage Of Database Approach To Traditional File Approach
It allows a number of users to access the same pieces of data at the same time.
It allows files to be edited and changed while traditional file processing does not.
It allows certain people or users of the database, administrators, to have more control than other users, whereas in file processing, all users have the same amount of control.
Reduced data redundancy: Data is stored only one time in database while in the traditional process approach data may have been duplicated.
Can be accessed remotely with username and password.
Advantage Of Database Approach To Traditional File Approach Cont'd
SQL support for data manipulation, insert, delete, update.
can be accessed remotely with username and password.
One can know who is connected to the database server, who is executing what SQL statement.
Reduced data redundancy:
Data is stored only once.
Improved data integrity:
Since data is stored only once for each entity, we don't need to worry about updating multiple records for the same entity.
Easier updating of data.
Data and program independence:
The data files are separate from the applications and thus can be used by many applications.
Improved strategic use of data:
More accurate data can be used
Backups and access can be better controlled by one database then multiple files of data
Disadvantages Of Database
Since it must support many applications, agreement of terms.
More difficult to recover from a failure:
A failure of the system effects all applications since all share the data
Need specialized professionals.