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Impact of Child Sex Abuse on Adult Psychopathology:
Transcript of Impact of Child Sex Abuse on Adult Psychopathology:
A Genetically and Epigenetically Informed Investigation
Presentation By Christine Paz
Prevalence for Men and Women (CSA)
• Child Sexual abuse (CSA) is a frequent occurrence, with estimates of lifetime prevalence converging on 16.8% for women and 7.9% for men (Philibert, 2013).
Effects and Outcomes
Kendler et al. (2000) found effects of CSA were on later drug dependence and alcohol dependence (AD), with substantial effects of CSA across a range of additional forms of adult psychopathology.
Dinwiddie et al. (2000) found increase in odds of major depression (MD) and AD among those who had been sexually abused.
Nelson et al. (2002) found among twins, the twin with the sex abuse history was significantly more likely to have depression, conduct disorder, AD, and nicotine dependence (ND), again suggesting that some effects are attributable specifically to CSA rather than to more general negative aspects of family environment.
Hypothesized Effect of Sex Abuse on Epigenetic Change
Hypothesized that CSA would have a measurable biological impact due to its effect on increased physiological reactivity.
Specifically, expected that CSA would lead to epigenetic change by inducing a substantial and sustained stress response that would be associated with epigenetic reprogramming.
hypothesized (a) that CSA would predict adult psychopathology for women, replicating prior research (e.g., Nelson et al., 2002); (b) that CSA would predict methylation, replicating prior work in an independent sample ( Beach et al., 2010b); and (c) that some of the impact of CSA on psychopathology would be correlated with, and perhaps mediated by, the degree of epigenetic change.
On average, a closer relationship to the abuser results in worse outcomes, leading to negative outcomes for father-daughter abuse, which is often characterized by earlier onset and longer duration of abuse.
Adverse outcomes for women exposed to CSA range across several domains, including depression, personality disturbance, and substance abuse, even when other aspects of family disruption are controlled, sex abuse often continues to account for a substantial amount of variance in outcomes (Beach, Brody, Simons, Gerrard, Cutrona, 2013).
Facts About CSA
Model Pathways of CSA
Current investigation supports and extends prior research on effect of sexual abuse on a range of outcomes by indicating the impact of CSA on adult psychopathology of women persists.
Study supported CSA prediction symptoms of antisocial personality, depression, and substance use. In addition, prior work suggesting the enhanced susceptibility of those with greater genetic load was also replicated, with greater effects of CSA on methylation and on substance abuse for those who had a genetic vulnerability.
Mark 9: 42
“Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea."
Beach, Brody, Simons, Gerrard, Cutrona, S. B. G. B. R. S. M. G. C. C. (2013). Impact of child sex abuse on adult psychopathology: A genetically and epigenetically informed investigation. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(1), 3-11. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=af945cb4-64be-4973-933e-8e46eb0ea9fb@sessionmgr110&hid=117