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Week 3 / 4 World War II
Transcript of Week 3 / 4 World War II
The End is near
LO - To understand why World War 2 started, and what the main details of the war were
50 million people would die.
100 Million people would fight during World War II
It was the deadliest conflict in human history.
Fascist Benito Mussolini takes control in Italy.
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
Key Skills - Listening, Analysing, discussing
So what caused so many humans to risk their lives and...
France and Great Britain Declare war on Germany.
Using Blitzkrieg, Germany conquers Poland in just 17 days.
1936 - 1938
Send troops to the Rhineland
"... in order to remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy ..."
Hitler, as well as the leaders of Japan and Italy believed that their nations required Lebensraum ('living space') in order to survive.
1939 - The Nonaggression Pact
But Hitler needed more land to create his vision.
no longer had to worry about war with the West.
What led the world to War?
A series of unfortunate events...
So why did these dictators invade other countries?
Germany captures Denmark and Norway
These actions clearly violated the Treaty of Versailles...
By the summer of 1940, Hitler and Germany had concurred most of Europe.
Germany's next target was Great Britain...
1. Great Britain fights Germany's Air Force to a draw.
2. Hitler decides he has crippled Great Britain so he moves to his next target.
Germany sets its sights on the Soviet Union
Japan was expanding its control over Asia
5 million people
50% of aircraft
Nearly all Tanks
and invades in Operation Barbarossa
1 million soldiers
50% of aircraft
50% of tanks
"December 7th, 1941, a day that will live in Infamy"
After Pearl Harbor, the United States ends neutrality and enters the war.
alliances had formed.
The Axis Powers
Germany, Japan, and Italy
Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain
And in 1941 Japan set its sights on the United States
The Allies push back
Operation Torch: Allies invade Africa
The 2nd front split German resources
Axis troops lose a major source of oil.
While Americans were soul searching at home, Military leaders were searching for a winning strategy...
The Allies gain momentum
1. Germany lost a substantial amount of troops and supplies.
2. Germany was in retreat from that point forward.
The Allies capture Rome and finally Won the Battle of Stalingrad
The Allies open a second front in France
More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over coastal Normandy immediately in advance of the invasion.
By nightfall, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore, securing French coastal villages.
5000 boats transported over 150,000 men and nearly 30,000 vehicles
1. Took the Western Front back from Germany control.
2. Gave the Allies a clear path to Hitler in Berlin.
A surprise German attack on the Allied Forces.
The Battle of the Bulge
Goal: to divide the allies
and get them
.. . these men came here - British and our allies, and Americans - to storm these beaches for one purpose only, not to gain anything for ourselves, not to fulfill any ambitions that America had for conquest, but just to preserve freedom. . . . Many thousands of men have died for such ideals as these. . . but these young boys. . . were cut off in their prime. . .
Hitler's Last Stand
When the battle was over...
100,000 German causalities
90,000 U.S. causalities
3. The remaining German forces had no back-up and could not hold back the Allies.
1. German lost all of its reserve army units.
2. The Luftwaffe had been destroyed.
On their way to Berlin, Soviet and American troops liberated concentration
Within a few months of the Battle of the Bulge, Mussolini was captured and hung by the Italian people while Hitler committed suicide on April 30th, 1945
The Battle of Britain
May 8, 1945 V-E Day
As the Allies celebrated their victory over Germany and Italy...
... they turned their attention toward Japan
The "Fragile Peace" is tested...
The Japanese Army invades Manchuria
... but the League of Nations did not have the power to stop them.
Mussolini invades the independent area of Abyssinia in Africa.
By breaking the Treaty, Germany put France and Great Britain in a difficult spot. What should they do?
The rise of Dictators
Germany turns to Fascism
1918: German Revolution
Ending the War is unpopular with many Germans, including many military officers.
The German Kaiser (King) Wilhelm II signs an armistice, ending combat in the war.
The Wiemar Republic tries to lead during tough times.
In 1919, one loaf of bread cost 1 mark (dollar)...
"Desperate people take desperate measures"
As economic conditions become harder,
people responded to the Nazi message.
Nazi's lead a coup attempt. The coup fails and many leaders, including Adolf Hitler, are put in jail.
The Nazi Party becomes the largest party in the German Reichstag.
Hitler writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in jail. The book lays out the Nazi vision for Germany's future
Hitler and the Nazi Party also change their strategy for gaining power...
... they will gain power by winning elections.
contempt for electoral democracy
a belief in natural social hierarchy and the rule of elites
extreme militaristic nationalism
individual interests are trumped by the good of the nation.
Germany becomes a democracy called the Wiemar Republic.
Kaiser Wilhilm II abdicates (gives up) his power.
The Rise of
... by 1923, one loaf of bread cost 100 billion marks (dollars).
The Nazi Party rises to Power
The Nazi Party got rid of Democracy and turned Germany into a
Fascists believed that Germany should return to "top of the world" and annihilate of all enemies of the Aryan Race.
2) Give in to Germany and make a new treaty?
Giving in to the Demands of an enemy to avoid war.
1) Germany keeps Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia.
2) Will take no further territory.
Germany reclaims some of the land they lost after World War I
Germany makes a deal with the Soviet Union to not attack each other and split control of Poland.
Now without a threat from the East, he can break the Munich Pact and invade Poland.
Europe is back at War
Joseph Stalin takes over in the Soviet Union when Vladimir Lenin dies
Military leaders take over in Japan after they assassinate the prime minister.
Hitler and the Nazi party set out to create the perfect human race
Germany reclaims land lost in the Treaty of Versailles.
Claim the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia
- Adolf Hitler, 1925
1) Enforce the Treaty by going to War with Germany.
Germany invades Poland.
How do dictators take power?
Keep Calm and Carry On
... and the "Fragile Peace" is finally broken by Germany.
The Treaty of Versailles
"The battlefront disappeared, and with it the illusion that there had ever been a battlefront. For this was no war of occupation, but a war of quick penetration and obliteration - Blitzkrieg, Lightning War."
Fighting in the Soviet Union lasted more than 2 years
...As fighting intensified in Europe
America evolving role
Many in the U.S. believe we should focus on our own problems
The Great Depression begins
Congress passes a law preventing the U.S. from supplying "arms, ammunition, or implements of war" to nations in conflict
The Neutrality Acts
U.S. changes law so that it can help supply Great Britain and France with weapons.
Congress amends the Neutrality Acts
The U.S. backs Great Britain with "All aid short of War"
Congress passes Lend-Lease Act
Europe and Asia's War is about to become a true World War.
Harsh winters in the Soviet Union made life difficult on German Soldiers. This was one of the reasons the Soviet Army was able to outlast the Germans.
What should the Allies do first?
Attack Germany and Italy
How should we attack Germany and Italy?
Strategy: Saturation Bombing
Strategy: Precision Bombing
Picking out a strategic place to bomb, like a weapons factory.
Pick a Place...
Drop a large amount of Bombs.
Turn it into Rubble
Just like the Soviet Union and Germany, the U.S. responded to the depression by changing our leader.
America elects Franklin Roosevelt President
Now it was time to take on Japan
Japan piles up victories
Japan takes Hong Kong, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, and the Philippines.
The Battle of Midway
When the air and sea fighting was over, Japan had lost most of their battleships and experienced pilots.
With Japan weakened, the Allies were ready to attack.
"Hit em where they aint - let'em die on the vine."
Is the End Near?
at the island of Okinawa convinces American Military leaders that Japan will not surrender.
Big Question: Should the United States use the Atomic Bomb on Japan?
August 14, 1945 V-J Day
"Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."
-Robert Oppenheimer, Scientist
"Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used."
-Harry Truman, President
President Truman Drops the Bomb
Soldiers sacrificed a great deal to defeat the Axis Powers...
... and so did Americans at home.
During the Great Depression, 1 out of 4 Americans did not have a job.
When War broke out, the need for soldiers and weapons quickly put people back to work.
The massive amount of Government spending on the war ended the Great Depression.
The Arsenal of Democracy
America transformed our economy from producing consumer products to war products
Factories that once made Cars were now making Fighter Jets, Tanks, and Bombs.
Women and minority groups had their chance to prove they belonged
African-American soldiers like proved as effective as their white counterparts in battle.
The Tuskegee Airmen
Women took jobs formally held by men opening many eyes to new choices.
Selling the War
Propaganda was used to sell Americans on the lifestyle of war.