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Unit 6: The Civil War

Honors U.S. History
by

Michele Goostree

on 5 November 2018

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Transcript of Unit 6: The Civil War

The Civil War
Causes of the CW
ADVANTAGES
North
South
STRATEGIES
North
South
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, April 12 and 13, 1861. By Currier and Ives, 1861. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm117.html
Union fort
low on supplies
Confederates attacked
defenders surrender
War officially begins
Recruitment offices overrun in South
"War will be over by Christmas"
Border
States

Missouri
Bordered Mississippi River
Controlled main routes to West
Kentucky
Controlled Ohio River
West Virginia and Maryland
Main railroad link with West
Delaware
Controlled access to Philadelphia
*If Maryland fell D.C. surrounded by Confederates
Undecided slave-owning states
Strategic assets
Did not initially secede; Lincoln stations troops on borders
W. Virginia joins in 1863
The Battle of Bull Run
July 1861
First "real" battle of Civil War
Shattered illusions of easy war
Bloodiness of battle was a foreshadowing of the war
Lincoln and Expansion of Executive Branch
War goal: Preserve the Union!
Executive Power expanded when Lincoln:
expanded federal budget
called up state militias
took actions w/o Congress approval
First President to use:
"commander-in-chief" power
draft powers
a call for war bonds/special taxes
Cotton Diplomacy
Would England & France support South?
Big moral decision...
Problems in the South
Underground Railroad
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dred Scott
John Brown
Election of 1860
Secession

This information can be found in your pre-reading notes
Large Free Population
Large Workforce
Male population age 18-60>South
Industrialization
Transportation
Defensive War
Experienced and trained officer corp
United public
Cotton
Capture Richmond (Conf. capitol); force surrender
Expel Confederates from border states
Control Mississippi River
Blockade Southern ports and stop cotton shipment
Capture Washington D.C. (Union capitol); force surrender
Control border states
Gain England's support and assistance
Expel Union troops from South
Shiloh and the War for the "West"
The War in the Trans-Mississippi West
The Naval War
Lincoln's Campaign Promises Filled
Morrill Tarrif Act (1861)
Raised tarriffs to more than double their prewar rates
Homestead Act (1862)
1862-1864: Chartered 2 RR Companies to build Transcontinental Railroad
160 acres public land to U.S. citizens
Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
Gave states land for public universities
1. Jefferson Davis
President of Confederate States of America
2. Shared belief of "states' rights"
3. Failure of cotton diplomacy
4. Finances
Lack of taxes = borrowing & inflation
5. Enlistments drop
April 1862 - first draft law passed
Contrast
Image sources: Cook Collection, Valentine Museum Library/Richmond History Center.
Battlefronts & Strategies
The War in Northern Virginia
"Anaconda Plan"
Squeeze South economy w/a blockade
Surrender w/o invasion
Capitols?
Winner (1862)?
George McClellan
"He has a case of the slows."
~Abe Lincoln
"Siege Mentality"= Stalemates
~Overestimate opposing forces/underestimate your forces
"The greatest general who never liked to fight that this war has ever seen."
~Attrib. Civil War diaries
Union Navy Superior
Southern blockade-runners challenged
North seized coastal areas

"Anaconda Plan" gradually squeezed South's economy
Led by Ulysses S. Grant
Staggering casualties on both sides
Naval reinforcement aided victories
Led by Confederate troops in Texas & Native Americans
Mount attack on New Mexico
Goal to take AZ, CA, and CO territory
Chronic Battles on Kansas-Missouri Border
brutal attacks on civilians
Conflicts b/n soldiers and Sioux on Great Plains
will lead to Indian Wars post-Civil War
The Politics of Emancipation
Lincoln opposed; initially not war goal
Issued following "victory" at Antietam
Jan. 1, 1863: slaves in areas of Conf. control are "free"...
Why doesn't EP free anyone?
Abolitionists push for 13th Amend.
Black Soldiers enlist after E.P.
Racism on both sides
Unequal pay (until 1864)
Confederates execute captured soldiers
The Front Lines and the Home Front
Wartime Politics
New Military Technology
Outdated Military Tactics
Neither side prepared for casualty toll
Medical ignorance of disease
Inhumane POW Camps
Army Nurses
Clara Barton
Ann Bell
Savage Station, Henrico Co., Virginia, June 29, 1862
North & South
Support Staff
Clara Barton:
Battlefield hygiene
Triage
Gave women public roles in communities
Division of Power:
War Democrats
Peace Democrats (Copperheads)
Criticisms:
Executive Power
Emancipation
1862: Martial Law in North
Suspension of Habeus Corpus
13,000 Deserters & wartime profiteers imprisoned
Radical Republicans gain strength
Economic and Social Strains (North)
War profiteers flourished
Inflation outpaced wages
Smaller tax pool = higher taxes
Unions formed
Conscription (draft)
Resentment of lower-class whites
NYC Draft Riots (1863)
White, working class citizens
Looting, fighting, lynching
Causes: Anger over draft; racism
Allowing black troops to serve helped.
Failure of Southern Nationalism
Class resentment
High inflation = destitution
Food riots
High desertion rates
Slaves disobedient; join Union
Peace Movements
1863
The Turning Point

http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/gettysburg/maps/gettysburg-animated-map/
Lee takes war North
Purpose:
Show North they can't win
Last effort of support from Britain and France
RESULT?
Confederate Loss as Vicksburg
Grant
and
Sherman

Appt. General-in-Chief of Union forces
Revived Anaconda Plan
strangle & annihilate South
Worked with Lincoln and Sherman on "Total War" Plan
Encouraged slaves in Virginia to run away
"Total War" Plan
Bring war to civilians
Burn/Destroy everything in path
"Make war so terrible" to the people of the South, to "make them so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would appeal to try it again."
Special Order #15
Set aside land for freed slaves
1864 Election
Lincoln v. McClellan
Democrats warn of racial mixing "negro-lovers"
Lincoln wins 55% popular vote
Lincoln enacts "absentee voting"for troops
Appomattox
Spring 1865
Lee's troops outnumbered 2:1
Conf. Troops:
Starving
Short of ammo
Desertion
High casualties
After Lee's surrender:
Confederate troops given parole and sent home.
Troops could not be tried for treason.
Lincoln hailed savior of freed blacks.
In Summation....
Effects of the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
"All slaves in enemy territory are liberated."
Division of Virginia
1863
West Virginia becomes free state
Death
600,000+ die from
~combat
~disease
~other factors
Scalawags
and
Carbetbaggers
Scalawag
Insult
White Southerner who supports Reconstruction and Republicans
Forms partnership with free blacks
Goal: Make profit off Southerners
Carpetbagger
Insult
Northerners who moved to South during Reconstruction
Carried bags made of carpet
Goal: Make profit during Reconstruction
Jim Crow Laws
System of government-sanctioned racial oppression and segregation
1863 - late 1960s
Discrimination against African Americans in:
~Education
~Public places:
restaurants
movies
stores
hotels
gas stations
bathrooms
and much more
~Trains and buses
~Marriage
Reconstruction
1863-1877
Southern states gradually re-admitted to Union
Areas destroyed during the war re-built
Thaddeus Stevens
Charles Sumner
"Radical Republicans" punish the south for starting the war
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendment passed
Freedman's Bureau:
~U.S. Government sponsored organization
~Helps blacks transition to freedom
Full transcript