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How To Make Saltwater Drinkable

By: Amana Ahmad and Maryam Syed; Experimental Design; Science final project
by

Maryam Syed

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of How To Make Saltwater Drinkable





Howard Perlman, U. (2014). Saline Water Use, the USGS Water Science School. [online] Water.usgs.gov. Available at: http://water.usgs.gov/edu/salineuses.html [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014]








QUESTIONS
Why is salt water unsafe to drink.
Which process of making saltwater drinkable is more efficient, Boiling or Evaporating?
What processes are used to make non drinkable water safe for drinking?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Freedrinkingwater.com, (2014). Can you make seawater drinkable? | APEC Water. [online] Available at: http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_quality/quality1/1-make-seawater-drinkable.htm [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014].
Water, H. (2014). How to Turn Salt Water Into Drinking Water. [online] wikiHow. Available at: http://www.wikihow.com/Turn-Salt-Water-Into-Drinking-Water [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014]
.
Enchantedlearning.com, (2014). Earth's Oceans - EnchantedLearning.com. [online] Available at: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/ [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014]
Giuggio, V. (2014). HowStuffWorks "What if you drink saltwater?". [online] HowStuffWorks. Available at: http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/what-if/what-if-you-drink-saltwater1.htm [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014].
Boysen, E. and Muir, N. (2014). Nanotechnology Helps to Make Saltwater Drinkable - For Dummies. [online] Dummies.com. Available at: http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/nanotechnology-helps-to-make-saltwater-drinkable.html [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014].
PROCEDURE 2
1. Place a small cup in the center of the pot.
2. Slowly pour some water with 2 tables spoon of salt onto the pot. Do not over fill. Stop well before the water level has reached the mouth of the glass.
3. Cover the top with plastic wrap, and place a small rock in the center above the cup.
4. Place the bowl in the sun and wait for it to evaporate.

FURTHER RESEARCH
If we decided to do this project again we would most probably get the same results. If we had given the evaporation process more time it may have given us different result. We would also use other processes to see if they worked better, such as reverse osmosis (RO), distillation, electrodialysis, and vacuum freezing.
BIBLIOGRAPHY (Continued)
Process
CONCLUSION
The End :)

BACKGROUND RESEARCH
Most marine creatures keep the amount of salt inside their bodies as about the same amount of the water outside their bodies because it has to have a balance. If an animal that usually lives in salt water were placed in fresh water, the fresh water would flow into the animal through its skin. If a fresh water animal found itself in the salty ocean, the water inside of it would come out. The same thing with humans, when we drink the water, the extra salt comes in you. and your body will need to take it out as quick as possible, so it`ll come out as urine and while that`s at it, more water will come out, more water than you actually take in. Soon you`ll Dehydrate and your body won’t work properly.

INTRODUCTION

The Earth is covered by 70% of water but only 3% is drinkable. Some people could go weeks without food but only a couple of days without fresh water.
Water shortages are affecting many countries in the world. Some scientists suspect that there could be serious worldwide water shortages if the climate changes greatly. So finding a way to make salt water drinkable would make sure that humans could have all the fresh water for drinking and agriculture they need.
Ocean water: Pressure
14.7 pounds per square inch (psi), or 1kg per square cm, of pressure are pushing down on our bodies as we stay at sea level. Our bodies are pushing out with the same amount of force, So it evens out.
Because water is way heavier than air, the pressure builds up as we go deeper into the water. We can only go to a certain place, if we need to go farther, we have to use a submarine.
BACKGROUND RESEARCH
Ocean water: Density
The density depends on the pressure, salinity and temperature. The ocean is divided into three parts. The first layer is called the surface mixed zone. The temperature and salinity can change because, evaporation can leave more salt, and it warmer than other places in ocean. The next layer is called the pycnocline zone. The density here doesn't change very often; this layer is a divider for the first and last layer. The last layer is called the deep zone. The water here is always dense and cold.


BACKGROUND RESEARCH
Desalination:
The process of making saltwater drinkable is called desalination. Desalination is a process that takes out minerals and salt from saltwater. There are many ways of desalination such as the reverse osmosis (RO), distillation, electrodialysis, and vacuum freezing.
BACKGROUND RESEARCH
RESULTS
We hypothesize that the Boiling process will be more efficient because when water is boiled, the water molecules inside the saltwater will evaporate and it will collect on the top of the lid, then the water will run to the lowest point of the lid which is the handle and drip and condensate into fresh water into the empty cup. And the salt in the water will stay in the pot because sodium chloride (salt) is much heavier than H2O so it wont evaporate. Also, it would less time than the evaporation process.
HYPOTHESIS
MATERIALS
1. Get a pot and put an empty glass cup inside it in the center
2.Slowly pour some water with 2 tables spoon of salt onto the pot. Do not over fill. Stop well before the water level has reached the mouth of the glass.
3.Place the pot cover upside down so the highest point or handle is facing down directly above the glass.
4.Bring the water to a slow boil.


PROCEDURE 1
Acs.org, (2014). Fresh Water from the Sea. [online] Available at: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/podcasts/globalchallenges/freshwater.html [Accessed 3 May. 2014].
Galbraith, K. (2014). Log In - The New York Times. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/10/science/earth/turning-saltwater-from-earth-and-sea-into-drinking-water.html?pagewanted=all [Accessed 3 May. 2014].
Planetseed.com, (2014). Water Desalination | Earth Science Experiments | PlanetSEED. [online] Available at: http://www.planetseed.com/laboratory/drinking-water-sea [Accessed 3 May. 2014].
Tarantola, A. (2014). Making Salt Water Drinkable Just Got 99 Percent Easier. [online] Gizmodo. Available at: http://gizmodo.com/5990876/lockheeds-new-carbon-filter-takes-all-the-effort-out-of-desalinization [Accessed 3 May. 2014].
BIBLIOGRAPHY (Continued)
5. As the water boils it becomes vapor, which condenses in the air as steam and on the cover's surface as water droplets, which then runs down to the lowest point (the handle) and drips right into the glass. 
6. Place an iodine indicator inside the fresh water and add a drop of hydrogen peroxide inside it then record the results and starch.

PROCEDURE 1 (continued)
Saltwater desalination plant
In Gopalpur

Beran, C. (2014). How to Make Salt Water Drinkable | Education.com. [online] Education.com. Available at: http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/making-salt-water-drinkable/ [Accessed 30 Apr. 2014].
How To Make Saltwater Drinkable
By: Amana Ahmad and Maryam Syed
Renaissance Academy
Experimental Design
In conclusion, our hypothesis was correct. The Boiling process contained less salt than the Evaporation process. The Boiling process is a better method because it took less time and had no salt left in it whereas the Evaporation process still contained some salt even after taking a whole day to evaporate.
Amount of iodine in salt
(parts per million)

Boiling
Evaporation
0 p.p.m
7 p.p.m
Salt left from the boiling process
Fresh water
Benson burner or stove
Pot
An empty glass or cup
Iodine indicators
Iodized salt
Plastic wrap
Starch
Hydrogen peroxide


Ocean water: Salinity
As you know, there is salt in the ocean. Have you ever wondered where it came from? Is it the same salt we use for cooking? Most of the salt came from land. When rain comes, it washes over rocks that have Sodium chloride (NaCl). And we know sodium chloride as Table salt. Some of the salt also comes from volcanoes that are under the sea. Whenever the water in the ocean evaporates, it leaves behind the salt, so over a long period of time, the ocean has a left a salty taste. We measure the amount of salt in a body of water buy how much salt in 1000 grams of water.


BACKGROUND RESEARCH
This picture shows the conversion of ocean water to fresh water
- Independent variable: The different process

- Dependent variable: How fresh the water is.

- Control: The amount of salt water we put in the pot.
VARIABLES
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