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Chapter 15 Water and Aqueous Systems
Transcript of Chapter 15 Water and Aqueous Systems
Aqueous Systems In these systems the particles are not dissolved.
They are dispersed. Depending on the size of the particle dispersed is the name of the system:
Suspension (>1000 nm)
Colloid (>1 nm; <1000 nm) A suspension is a system where the particles don't stay dispersed for long.
They tend to settle and can be separated by filtration. A colloid is a heterogeneous system where the particles are bigger than those of a solution, but smaller than those in a suspension.
It has two phases:
Dispersed phase Colloids have three main characteristics:
Coagulation Dispersion medium:
Gas Aqueous Systems A solution is a homogeneous
mixture composed of two parts:
Solvent (bigger part)
Solute (smaller part) Is the dissolving
medium Are the particles
that dissolve In an aqueous solution
water is always the solvent Solvation process Electrolytes
(Strong or weak) A strong electrolyte exists almost completely dissociated into ions.
A weak electrolyte yields very few ions. A non-electrolyte is a substance that doesn't conduct an electric current in either an aqueous solution or its molten state.
Example: Sugar. Hydrates:
Ionic compounds that contain water of hydration or water of cristallization.
The formula indicates how many molecules of water per formula unit.
Ex. CuSO4·5H2O Types of Hydrates:
Efflorescent: Loses water easily
Hygroscopic: Gains water easily
Traps water from air and dissolves completely. A substance that produces ions when dissolved in water or in its molten state is called an electrolyte. Properties of
Water High Surface Tension Low
Vapor Pressure Solid State Density