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Chocolate

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Adrienne Kleid

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Chocolate

Where does it all go? 700,000 tons of cocoa exported from Ghana annually (Afrane, 2008) Materials Input per 1000g of Cocoa 2004/2005 (Afrane, 2008)
Water: 5127g
Fertilizer (NPK): 145.9g
Fungicides: 7.420g
Insecticides: .8000g
Pesticides to air: .8131g
Pesticides to freshwater: 3.688g
pesticides to soil: .9448g Farming Cocoa Manufacturing
Chocolate Distribution Start Dark Chocolate contains ~30% sugar
(Chocolate By the Numbers) Human Impacts Adrienne & Kaua Chocolate Shipping to Manufacture Wrapping:
Each Kiss is wrapped in 2.25" square of foil and given a 3.5"x .8" paper flag.
Thats 6.40 square feet (0.595 sq.meters) of alumim foil and 3.54 square feet (0.329 sq meters) of paper. The distance between Ghana and
Pennsylvania is just over 5,100 miles
and cargo ships burn 120 gallons of
fuel for every mile. This means 612000
gallons are used in each trip. An
Emma Maersk container ship has 11,000
14 ton containes. Deviding this into gallons per kg of chocolate is: Unit: 1 Kg (1000 grams) of dark chocolate Hershey's Kisses

Scope:
starting with chocolate farming and ending at wrapper disposal
willl include milk and sugar production, but cannot cover all minor and perervative ingredents for the sake of time
will not include the production of chemicals used (such as origins of fertilizer), or metals & papers in wrapping process
Ghana chocolate, destend for Hawaii consumption (not industrial chocolate)
we realize Hershey's is a blend of chocolates of differnt origns, we are tracking only the Ghana portion Use Disposal Scope & Unit Environmental impacts Room for Improvement Increased water use efficiency Sugar Milk References LCIA We would like to think that the 6.4 Sq Feet of Aluminum and 3.54 Sq Feet of Paper are recyled, or at least put in a trash can, but they're often not.

Food wrappers and packaging are the 5th most common item found in the ocean. (Buczynski, 2012)

Americans only recycle 34% of waiste. If we assume that this is true of our kisses wrappers, then 4.2 Sqare Feet of wrapper per KG is added to the environment, somewhere. (Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2010, 2011). Everybody's favorite part! Afrane, George and Ntiamoah, Augustine (2008) Environmental impacts of cocoa production and processing in Ghana: life cycle assessment approach
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 16, Issue 16, November 2008, Pages 1735–1740
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.11.004

Afrane, George and Ntiamoah, Augustine (2011). Use of Pesticides in the Cocoa Industry and Their Impact on the Environment and the Food Chain, Pesticides in the Modern World - Risks and Benefits, Dr. Margarita
Stoytcheva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-458-0, InTech, Available from:
http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-risks-and-benefits/use-of-pesticides-in-thecocoa-industry-and-their-impact-on-the-environment-and-the-food-chain

Buczynski, B. (2012, March 27). 10 Most Common Types Of Ocean Trash. Care2makeadifference. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from http://www.care2.com/causes/10-most-common-types-of-ocean-trash.html

Büsser, Sybille and Jungbluth, Niels (2009) LCA of Chocolate Packed in Aluminium
Foil Based Packaging. ESU-services GmbH, fair consulting in sustainability. stie http://www.alufoil.org/tl_files/sustainability/ESU_-_Chocolate_2009_-_Exec_Sum.pdf

EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Office of Air and Radiation (1995) Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, chapter 1 section 3: Source Test Review, Hershey Chocolate USA, Derry Township, PA (AP-24, fith edition, vol I) Entropy, Inc : Research Triangle Park, North Carolina USA site: http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/old/ap42/ch01/related/rel4_c01andc03.pdf

Clay, WWF-US, J. (June 21). Sugercane Production and the Environment. Lecture presented at Better Sugar Meeting. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CD0QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fassets.panda.org%2Fdownloads%2Fsugarcaneproductionandtheenvironment.pdf&ei=VL0iUfDRCujXiALQuoAQ&usg=AFQjCNEBWKJzzRbQ6fsJ30hQAkQq7Eaj8A&sig2=PjGp6H3IXtGL6xd7jZ_iNg

Distance between Accra, Ghana and Pennsylvania, USA. (n.d.). DateandTime.info. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://dateandtime.info/distance.php?id1=2306104

Emma Maersk / Container vessel specifications. (n.d.). Emma Maersk. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.emma-maersk.com/specification/

The Hershey Company. (2010, November 10). The Making of Chocolate (Rep.). Retrieved February 19, 2013, from https://www.thehersheycompany.com/assets/pdfs/hersheycompany/MakingChocolate_pdf.pdf

The Hershey Company. (2011). Carbon Disclosure Project: CDP 2011 Investor CDP 2011 Information Request (Rep.). Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.thehersheycompany.com/assets/pdfs/hersheycompany/cdp2011.pdf

Hershey's. (n.d.). Nutrition Facts: Kisses - Special Dark. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.thehersheycompany.com/brands/hersheys-kisses/special-dark-chocolate.aspx

How much fuel does a container ship burn? (2009, October). WikiAnswers. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_fuel_does_a_container_ship_burn

Liquid Minerals Group Inc. - Bunker Fuel. (n.d.). Liquid Minerals Group Inc. - Bunker Fuel. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.liquidminerals.com/fuels.htm

Municipal Solid Waste. (2012, July 24). EPA. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/index.htm

Sarian, Z. B. (2010, January 15). Time to invest in sugarcane. The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/238654/time-invest-sugarcane

Sustainable Supply Chains - Carbon Calculator from LOG-NET Global Logistics. (n.d.). Sustainable Supply Chains - Carbon Calculator from LOG-NET Global Logistics. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.log-net.com/sustainability/index.php

WWF - Sugar and the Environment - Encouraging Better Management Practices in Sugar Production and Processing. (2005, June 22). WWF. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/?22255/Sugar-and-the-Environment-Encouraging-Better-Management-Practices-in-Sugar-Production-and-Processing production causes 96% or more of the damge from:
eutrophication,
ozone layer depletion,
freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity,
human toxicity,
terrestrial eco-toxicity (Afrane, 2008) Hershey, PA Hawaii Chocolate production
in Ghana is a major social
benifit to the population, so
much so that the government
subsidises it by providig
free pesticides
& fungicides 1 kg is 2.2 lbs
& 1 gram is .03 oz 67% of original harvest is
pod weight, which is removed via fermintaion, commercial uses for this pulp is being researched (Alfrane, 2008) Unfortunately, this pesticide use is degrading the flura/fauna of the soil and the clear cutting of forest for cocoa trees is reducing biodiversity Grinders:
Processing cocoa into cocoa powder, cocoa butter and industrial chocolate Chocolate Companies:
Manufacturing chocolate for consumers *Nestle, Cadbury Schweppes, Cemoi, Ferrero, Kraft Foods, Mars, Hershey & others (Fairtrade, 2011) *Barry Callebaut, Cargill, ADM, Petra Foods, Blommer & others (Fairtrade, 2011) (Emma Maersk, 2013, Distance between ghana, ND, wiki answers, 2009, liquid materals, inc, ND) Shiping containers
often run onbunker fuel,
wich is effetivy the left -overs of
fuel refining. All the contaiments, salts, sulphers, that won't distill off, are
buned up when the fuel is used.
Bunker fuel is essechly diluted asphalt.
Exhust is vented under water to
hide the fumes. Suger cane matures after about 4 years.
Suger beet culivation causes 13-49 tons/acer/year of wind-gernated soil erosion, water-gernated erosion range from 15-500tons/acer/year for sugar cane
Wetland and marine habiatats are damged due to fertlizer run off and mill effuent disgarge (contains mollasus)
Cane requires 1500-2000mm/ha/year of water
Famers typicaly use about 50 tones of ferlizer per year per hecter for cane, which is way more then nesscary. ("WWF - Sugar and the Environment - Encouraging Better Management Practices in Sugar Production and Processing," 2005, Clay, WWF-US, n.d.) Pollution & Erson of soil from Cacao tree farming & suger production
CO2 Production durring transportation & roasting/refining process
Mettal use and the impacts of its production
Improper disposal of wrappers leading to litter Apendix the suger in 1kg of chocolate (cane-source):
uses 118.9 gallons of water (Clay, WWF-US, n.d.)
uses 136 grams of fertlizer
causes at least 33.3 grams of soil erosion in sugar production due to water 0.015 liters or about .5 oz (Ntiamoah & Afrane, 2008) 0.015 liters of fuel
for 1 Kg of chocolate 182.25 Dark Chcocolate Kisses in 1 KG
Stimulates endorphin production
Contains anti-depressant serotonin
Contains stimulants theobromine and caffeine Extremely rich in flavanols and antioxidants Found to help lower blood pressure, and cholesterol, and lower risk of heart attack ("Heart-Health Benefits" n.d) Manufacture chocolate near cocoa/sugar/dairy farms to minimize transportation of raw materials Hershy's uses dried beans for Kisses Spechal Dark & extrats cocoa butter themselves for their own use. Beans arrive at Hershy via railroad they are then sorted by orgin and blended at spacific propotions Beans are then roasted at very high tempraturs A hulling machine then smashes the beans then seprates the innser bean (nibs) from the hulls The nibs are then milled (ground) and made into chocolate liquor, which is just a fancy name for liqid chocolate. Whole milk arrives at the Hershey factory It is then tested and pasturized Suger arrives at Hershey facotry Whole milk is then blended with sugar The milk-suger blend is then dryed slowly untill it becomes a taffy consistancy The thick milk-suger is then combined with the chocolate liqour, and dryed into chocolate crumb Crumb is mixed with cocoa butter, which brings out the rich taste The resulting chocolate paste is poured into giant vats with rollers (called conches), which removes the grittyness.
24-72 hour process The paste is then tempured and a spechal machine drops a spacific amount of chocolate onto a moving belt and quickly cools is. Partnerships with small farmers- boost local economy, promote sustainable farming (The Hershey Company, 2010) 1kg of Dark
Chocolate Hershey’s Kisses=
3,847.5 Total calories
506.25g Total Carbohydrate
243g Total Fat
0.10mg Cholesterol
0.30g Sodium
425.25g Sugars
40.5g Protein
("Hershey's," n.d.) Cocoa Butter is extracted after milling and added back in later in precise amounts. 1kg of milk can produce 8.3kg of dark chocolate The milk in 1kg of dark chocolate:
uses 422 grams of water
uses 810 grams of fertilizer
produces 3.7 grams of methane Dark Chocolate contains 12% milk All of Hershey's Cocolate production used:
3,624,881 MWh of Fuel
Distillate fuel oil No 2: 11,057 MWh
Distillate fuel oil No 6: 4,574 MWh
Propane: 120 MWH
Diesel/Gas oil: 3,750 MWh
79,519 MWh of Electricity
(The Hershey Company, 2011) Hershey's Produced 403,786 Meteric Tonnes of CO2 in 2010
(The Hershey Company, 2011) Shipping:
The total emmisons from all Hershey's Products sold is 143,322 Metric tonnes of CO2 (The Hershey Company, 2011)
Motor move from Hershey, PA to Oakland, CA: 4.396 metric tons of CO2
Ocean move from Oakland, CA to Honolulu, HI: 0.933 metric tons of CO2
Total emissions: 5.329 metric tons of CO2 per 40' container
=174.82792 grams of CO2 for 1kg chocolate
Air move from Hershey, PA, USA to Honolulu, HI USA: 0.005 metric tons of CO2
("Sustainable Supply Chains - Carbon Calculator from LOG-NET Global Logistics," n.d.) PER DAY:
Cows eat anywhere from 13-22 kg of feed
Require around 20 gallons of water
Produce average 7 gallons of milk
Produce .219kg of methane Annually, a dairy cow uses
235.6 kWh of electricity per year
43 liters of diesel
1.24 tons of feed
and needs .33 acres. (Dalgaard, 2008) Ocean move from Ghana to Hershey, PA:
0.06446554 kilograms of CO2
("Sustainable Supply Chains - Carbon Calculator from LOG-NET Global Logistics," n.d.) (Dalgaard, EPA) 6.4 Sq Feet of Aluminum
3.54 Sq Feet of Paper 174.82792 grams of CO2 emmissons
(The Hershey Company, 2011) Personal utility & joy,
equal to 182 kisses Africa Cost-effective biological control and integrated pest management Environmental improvement actions should be focused on the cocoa production and processing stages of the product’s life cycle, particularly on agrochemicals and fossil fuels inputs. (Afrane, 2009) Multi-cropping Maintenance of soil health and prevention of soil erosion (Afrane, 2009) ("Hershey's," n.d.) 3847.5 calories
("Hershey's," n.d.) The boilers at the Hershey
factory also vent Carbon
Monxide & Nitogen Oxides Cacao Tree (Büsser, 2009) 1 serving of dark chocolate (40g) has
12g saturated fat= 60% daily limit
227 calories
("Bad News for Chocoholics" n.d) While dark chocolate is better than milk and white chocolate due to the antioxidants it contains, it's also higher in calories and saturated fat 4.2 Sqare feet of foil is in a land fill, incerated, has found its way to the ocean or is still wondering the planet Goods: Bads: Eaten in moderation (1oz a few times per week) ("Heart and Vascular Health" n.d) 1 kg of Hershy's Spechal Dark Kisses requires:
In farming:
Water: 5,127g
Fertilizer (NPK): 145.9g
Fungicides: 7.420g
Insecticides: .8000g
Pesticides to air: .8131g
Pesticides to freshwater: 3.688g
pesticides to soil: .9448g
In transportation:
bunker fuel 0.015 l
64.46 grams of CO2 Ghana > Hershey
174.82792 grams of CO2 Hershy > consumer
For milk:
water 422g
Fertilizer 810 g
3.7 grams of methane
For Suger
water 450,333g
fertilizer 136g
33.3 grams of soil erosion due to water
In Manufactuing
Fuel
Electricy
(not known for kg/chocolate) CO
(not known for kg/chocolate) NOx
(not known for kg/chocolate) CO2
In Packaging
Aluminum: 6.4 Sq Feet
2.2 Sq Feet is recycled
Paper: 3.54 Sq Feet
In Consumption
3847.5 calories
Total
inputs:
451,863.566 grams of matreal
+.015 l fuel
+ 9.94 Sq Feet of packaging
outputs:
242.98 grams of emmissions
33.3 grams of soil erosion
3847.5 calories of energy Chocolate can be good for overall health if eaten in moderation
Rich in antioxidants and flavonols
High in calories and saturated fat ("Heart-Health Benefits" n.d) EPA estimates over 109,000 children work as child laborers in the Ivory Coast alone (40% of worlds production)

over 10,000 children are victims of human trafficking and enslavement ("International Labor Rights" n.d) ("International Labor Rights" n.d)
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