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Preventive, Therapeutic, and Legal Responses to Drugs, Chapt
Transcript of Preventive, Therapeutic, and Legal Responses to Drugs, Chapt
Preventive, Therapeutic, and Legal Responses to Drugs, Chapters 12, 13, and 14
Social Influence Model
Harm Reduction Model
Supply-Side Strategies- A variety of efforts designed to curtail, control, or regulate the available supply of drugs
-Reduces or limits the supply of drugs
-Targets include (border, cultivation, leadership, dealers)
Demand-Side Strategies- A variety of programs and efforts, including treatment and education, that serve to reduce the demand for drugs
The Balloon Effect- The economic mechanism underlying the global effect is quite simple: the success of eradication in one area temporarily reduces the supply, and that translates into a price rise. Then, given that the supply function is fairly elastic, higher prices stimulate people to plant crops in other places.
Designed primarily to convey factual information regarding drugs
These programs are typically implemented through schools
Mass media are often used as well
Although factual information is used, some claims are often exaggerated.
Stories and instances are often cherry-picked without any regard to context
Often these claims are utilized as 'scare tactics'
Partnership for a Drug-Free America
Originated in 1986
Tends to produce dramatic commercials of effects of drug use
Other ads target parents
Other informational programs
Anti-smoking campaigns by American Heart Association
Measures to prevent and/or reduce drug use by providing information on the nature and consequences of drug use and/or by attempting to directly influence behavior.
-DARE, which was founded in 1984 is focused on influencing children and pre-teens before first contact
-The program in most locations starts in 5th grade and goes through High School
- Zero-tolerance policy
Let's look at some different drug education models...
Built upon principles of social control theory
Based on the idea that when these factors are lacking, students are more vulnerable to drug use and other social pathologies such as delinquency
Designed to assist students in developing life skills, including:
Social Influence Model-
Seeks to prepare young people to resist peer pressure to use drugs
Early programs developed in the 1970’s to teach kids to resist pressure to smoke cigarettes
Most well-known program is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), jointly initiated by LAPD and the LA public school system
Harm Reduction Model-
Based on following general premises:
“Drugs” consist of both licit and illicit substances
Abstinence is not realistic for all individuals
“Use” of drugs does not necessarily constitute “abuse”
Context of drug use is a primary factor in safe drug use
Goals of a harm reduction model
Provide factual information
Incorporate experiences of youths themselves
Incorporate role models, preferably older youth, who have used but not abused drugs
Has been practiced in principle with alcohol for several decades
Has met much resistance for illicit drug use, however
Social policy is tied to cultural expectations
Types of Legalization
Closely resembles how we currently handle Cigarettes
Limited Distribution Model
Access to those who are legitimately entitled to the drugs, in legitimate locations
State run liquor stores and gambling
Access for those who have health conditions that the drugs can treat
Eliminate withdrawal symptoms
Removing Criminal Penalties
May still be subject to monetary fines
More ready support
Can maintain criminal sanctions for trafficking
Crime and corruption
The social change that would have to take place
Other latent effects
Brief History of Mexican Drug Cartel
Mexican drug cartels have been present since prohibition
The Cartels became disorganized once the U.S. struck down prohibition
They came back to life once the Marihuana Tax Act went into effect
The trade became much more organized in the 1980s-1990s when Colombian Pablo Escobar formed networks with Mexican organizations and the cocaine trade
Since that time Cartels have even become a semi-government for some towns in Mexico as they have created hospitals and schools
More recently, the Mexican President has created a literal war on drugs, which has killed around 80,000 people so far, vigilante groups have stepped up as corruption among officials is rampant
Sinaloa and Gulf Cartels are currently top groups