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Scramble for Africa (ca 1800 - 1961)
Transcript of Scramble for Africa (ca 1800 - 1961)
European Imperial Motives
Global Imperial Rivalries
Britain, France, Russia
Rise of Japan & United States
Decline of Ottomans & Qing Dynasty
Needs of Industrialization
Consumer Base (Colonial Population)
Loss of "New World" Colonies (1776 - 1825)
Rudyard Kipling's "
White Man's Burden
Abolition of Slavery
Methods of Conquest - How...
What do you know about Africa?
Scramble for Africa
(ca 1800 - 1961)
You cannot reference these terms:
Egypt Under Muhammad Ali pasha
British Cape Colony
Local nomadic Control
Luba, Lunda, & lozi Kingdoms
Local Nomadic Control
Various Muslim Kingdoms (Declining Ottoman Influence)
Bunyoro & Buganda Kingdoms
Portuguese East Africa
zulu & matabele Kingdoms
Herero & nama Peoples
Benin, Dahomey, & asante States
Kingdom of Morocco
Settlements for Freed Slaves established (Future liberia)
Various muslim states
Areas of intense euro-african trade
Largely Local/Indigenous Control
Ottoman Decline in North
West African "Slave States"
At Least Twelve Sovereign Independent Kingdoms
Over 200 Distinct Ethno-Linguistic Groups
Major European Outposts:
Cape Colony (1652 - Dutch; 1806 - British)
Portuguese East and West Africa
1830 - French Invasion of Algeria
Growing British Influence in Egypt
Dr. Harm de Blij (University of Michigan):
“The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one…By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate well."
Scholars on the Effects of Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885)
Chronology of Euro-African Interaction
1501 - Portuguese in Mozambique Coastal)
1501 - Beginning of Trans-Atlantic Slaving (Slavers Trading Along Coasts)
1575 - Portuguese in Angola (Coastal)
1652 - Dutch Cape Colony Founded (Coastal)
1659 - French in Senegal (Coastal)
1807 - Britain Abolishes Slave Trade
1815 - British Annexation of Cape Colony
1820 - Creation of Liberia
1847 - France Controls Algeria (Invasion)
1876 - Inter. Assoc. of the Congo (Leopold II - Belgium)
1879 - British Win Anglo-Zulu War (SA)
1881 - 1st Anglo-Boer War (SA)
1882 - France in Western Congo
1882 - British Forces Occupy Egypt
1896 - British Forces Occupy Sudan
1897 - British Defeat &B Loot Kingdom of Benin
1898 - French Defeat Wassoulou Empire (Samori Ture)
1901 - British Win 4th Anglo-Ashanti War (1st - 1807)
1902 - 2nd Anglo-Boer War (SA)
1904 - British Defeat Sokoto Caliphate
1907 - German Conquest of Namibia
1912 - French Protectorate of Morocco
Colonial borders established at the Berlin Conference (1884 – 1885) cut across at least 177 different ethnic “culture areas.”
The Congo Free State
South Africa - Creation of an Apartheid State
Deutsch Sudwest Afrika
Impact of the Berlin Conference
Algeria & France
The "Fly Whisk" Incident
Civilizing Mission & Indigenous Legal Code
Algeria as Part of France
Congo Free State
Leopold II & Henry Morton Stanley
Africa International Association
Force Publique & "Red Rubber"
Acquisition of Wealth
The Power of Mass Media
The Casement Report & Congo Reform Association
Dutch Settlers (1652) & British Annexation (1806 & 1815)
Zulu Wars & The Mfecane
Cecil Rhodes & the Mining Industry
The Boer Wars & British Dominance
1st Boer War (1880 - 1882)
2nd Boer War (1899 - 1902)
Cape to Cairo Colony
Racial Legislation & Apartheid
1911 - Mines & Works Act
1913 - Native Lands Act
Formation of the South African Native National Congress (1912)
African National Congress (1923)
Germany Gets A Late Start
Bismarck Not Interested (Why?)
Kaiser Wilhelm II &
"Place in the Sun" Speech
German Colonial Policies
Friedrich Ratzel & "
Herero Revolts & Genocide
Samuel Maherero - Revolt Leader
Wilhelm II -
"Crush the revolt by fair means or foul."
Eugen Fischer & Medical Experimentation
80,000 (1904) to 15,000 (1907)
Precursor to Holocaust?
Important Cases of Colonization
Divide & Rule
"Blood thought he knew the native mind; He said you must be firm, but kind. A mutiny resulted. I shall never forget the way that Blood stood upon this awful day, preserved us all from death. He stood upon a little mound, cast his lethargic eyes around, and said beneath his breath: 'Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim Gun, and they have not.'"
Lesson Plan - German School for African Children (Togo - 1909)
Sat, Nov 20 (1909)
- The following questions had been set as a task to learn:
The large states of Europe and their capitals.
What are the names of Germany's most important mountains?
What are the names of the most important rivers in Germany and in what direction do they run?
- The subject:
"What good things have the Europeans brought to us?"
Tues, Nov 23 (1909)
- The task was set:
The reign of emperor William I and the wars he had waged. Name those men who had specially supported his government.
: Bruce Fetter, ed.,
Colonial Rule in Africa: Readings from Primary Sources
(Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 128 - 129
Ghana (1807 - 1901) - Anglo-Ashanti Wars
Algeria (1830 - 1847) - Abd al-Qadir Revolts
South Africa (1879) - Anglo-Zulu War
Sudan (1881 - 1889) - Mahdist War
Gabon (1882 - 1898) - Samori Ture Revolt
Zimbabwe (1896 - 1898) - The Chimurenga & Nehanda
Ethiopia (1896) - Battle of Adwa*
Namibia (1904) - Herero Revolt Against German Rule
Tanzania (1905 - 1907) - Maji Maji
* = Victory for African Forces
Mauride Brotherhood (Senegal - 1883)
Young Algerians (Algeria - 1907)
Kenya African National Union (1944)
United Gold Coast Convention (Ghana- 1947)
Stated Purposes of the Berlin Conference (General Act of the Berlin Conference):
Establish free trade throughout the Congo River Basin
Establish freedom of trade along Congo & Niger Rivers.
Neutrality of the territories within the Congo Basin.
Rules for future occupation of Africa by European powers.
End the slave trade.
Divide & Rule
The Herero Genocide (BBC)
The Modern Traveller by
Hilaire Belloc (1898)
The Creation of "Tribe" As A Ruling Mechanism
Indigenous Military Conscription - The Use of
SA Native National Congress (1912)
African National Congress (1923)
Other Notable Movements of Political Organization
The People Shall Govern!
All National Groups Shall have Equal Rights!
The People Shall Share in the Country`s Wealth!
The Land Shall be Shared Among Those Who Work It!
All Shall be Equal Before the Law!
All Shall Enjoy Equal Human Rights!
The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened!
There Shall be Houses, Security and Comfort!
There Shall be Peace and Friendship!
The ANC Freedom Charter
(Kliptown, SA - 1955)
Who am I and where am I from?
"...tribe is a source of misunderstanding the great diversity of...Africa by labeling small hunting and gathering groups of less than 100 persons as a tribe as well as a far-flung, multinational...trading group of millions of persons across [various] nations as a 'tribe.'" (
Using “Tribe” and “Tribalism” to Misunderstand African Societies
by David Wiley)
The British Use of Military Force
Rudyard Kipling -
The White Man's Burden
Take up the White Man's burden--
Send forth the best ye breed--
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild--
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
Small Group (5 Minutes)
What does the timeline tell us about how the colonization of Africa developed?
What were the main European motives behind the colonization of Africa in the late 19th Century?
Why did the European colonization of Africa take place in the late 1800s and not earlier?
European Influence in Africa - Periodization
1815 - 1884
1885 - 1914
1915 - 1961
Limited European Influence
Christian Conversions in Kongo (Early 1500s)
Slave Trading in West Africa (ca 1500 - 1850)
Increased European Influence (Still Limited)
Coastal Settlements w/ Some Internal Expansion
British Annex Cape Colony (1815)
Founding of Liberia (1822)
French Invade Algeria (1830)
Belgian Expansion Into Congo (1879)
Large Scale Colonization
World War One & World War Two
Pan-Africanism & Independence Movements
1960 As The Year of Africa
Trade Relations & Missionary Activity
Portuguese in Kongo (late 15th Century)
Dutch Found Cape Colony (1652)
French Sign Trade Treaties in Gabon (1839)
End of Slave Trading (Mid-Late 1800s)
Change in Trade Relations
Continued Missionary Activity
African Resistance Movements
Military Conquest (Maxim Gun)
Divide & Rule (Uganda, Bunyoro & Buganda)
Assimilation (Religion, Military, Education)
Revolts, Wars (John Chilembwe, Ethiopia, Herero)
Start of Political Organization (African National Congress - South Africa)
European Political, Economic, & Military Control
Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885)
Effects of European Rule
Belgian Congo & Herero Genocide in German Namibia
Infrastructure Focused on Exporting Resources
" - Education, Religion
Creation of Tribal Divisions
Divisions of Cultural & Linguistic Groups
World War One , Great Depression, & World War Two
Decrease in European Dominance - Morally, Economically, Militarily, Culturally, etc.
Human Rights Focus - United Nations
Growth of Independence Movements
Kwame Nkrumah, Pan-Africanism & Ghana - 1st Country to Gain Independence (1957
1960 to 1961 - Year of Africa
Fifteen Countries Gain Independence
Increased Popularity of Pan-Africanism
Militarization of South Africa Resistance - Umkonto Wesizwe (Spear of the Nation); Armed Wing of the African National Congress
The Example of South Africa
Armed Wing of ANC
Wins SA Presidency Behind Nelson Mandela (1994)
Start From Here
Go To Here
Africa: States of Independence - Scramble for Africa
: Al-Jazeera, 2010 -
From 1:00 - 33:40 Mark
Effects of Colonial Rule
Treaties & Alliances
The Example of Uganda
Start From Here
Impact of Outside Traders
Bunyoro & Buganda Rivalry
Arrival of Europeans (Late 1800s)
Impact of Buganda-British Alliance
Lost Kingdoms of Africa - Bunyoro & Buganda
: BBC, 2013 - From 41:00 Mark)
Pre-1884 vs Post-1884
Accomodation & Rejection
The Story of John Chilembwe
West African Newspaper Movement