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The Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement
US History L1 ~ Mrs. Zemetres
Little Rock Nine
Thurgood Marshall, Medgar Evers
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Martin Luther King Jr.
March on Washington
Birmingham Church Bombings
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Emmett Till was a 14 year old Chicago born african american boy.
He was visiting Mississippi with his uncle and brother in 1955
While in Mississippi, he and some friends entered a store in which there was a cashier woman
The woman, Carolyn Bryant, was a white woman. Till reportedly whistled at her.
Carolyn Bryant told her husband and in the next few days Till went missing
Carolyn's husband, Roy, and half brother, Milam Bryant, kidnapped, tortured, and killed 14 year old Emmett Till
Emmett's body was found three days later at the bottom of the Tallahatchie river
Both men were released from custody six weeks after the trial
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Brown vs. Board of Education
The Brown vs. Board of Education was a compilation of 5 law suits of racial discrimination within the school system.
Led by Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP, the collection of cases was led by Oliver Brown of Topeka, Kansas.
After Earl Warren became the new Chief Justice, he was able to get the justices to unanimously agree that segregation of the school was unconstitutional.
The decision had said that the racial segregation of schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
The court also concluded that the racial discrimination affected the ability to learn because of low self-esteem.
Although he process of desegregation in schools took many years, the case would be a catalyst to get the process underway.
The event was triggered by the shooting of Jimme Lee Jackson in his attempts to protect his mother from being beaten
founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California and had the full name of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Points from the Black Panther Program 1966 Platform and Program: What we want, What we believe
"freedom, full employment for their people, end the robbery by the white man of the black community, decent housing, education, black men exempt from military, end of police brutality, freedom of all black men in jails, fair trial, justice, peace"
3 years after Brown vs. Board of Education nine black students were recruited to attend a now desegregated school in Little Rock Arkansas
angry mob of whites gathered the entrance on the first day of school, Arkansas Gov. Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent students from entering the school
Federal judge declared Faubus's actions illegal and students were then police escorted into the school, but sent home soon afterward
mobs came back to schools with violence and hostility towards the black students
Eisenhower sent Army troops to protect students and took control of the National Guard soldiers
In order to resist desegregation Faubus closed Little Rock's public schools, but the attempt to keep schools closed failed.
In response to Jackson's death, supporters of civil rights marched to Montgomery, Alabama to protest
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The SNCC was founded in April 1960 by young students who took part in a sit-in protest movement at a college in Greensboro, North Carolina.
A sit-in protest is one where people peacefully organize a protest in which they occupy a place and refuse to leave.
Why was SNCC created?
The SNCC was created as a leadership organization to combat civil rights issues and was primarily made up of college students.
In 1960 a group of black college students were denied service at the campus dining hall. This sparked a sit-in protest to occur. This was the start of the organizing of more sit-in protests as well as more effort being put into the formation of the SNCC.
Importance of the SNCC
The biggest change that the SNCC brought about was the inclusion of young blacks in the Civil Rights Movement.
Played a big role in freedom rides which main goal was to desegregate buses
Marched alongside Martin Luther King Jr.
Known as the shock troops of the Civil Rights Movement
Founder of SNCC
Also leader of other infulential groups such as the NAACP and SCLC
Worked closley with Martin Luther King Jr.
Chairman of the SNCC
Part of freedom rides where angry mobs beat him and others
Leader of the march that is known as "Bloody Sunday" where state troopers attacked the marchers
Elected to Congress in 1986
Brown Vs Board of Edu.
March 7th, 1965
Advent activists continued to march even when told to halt by state troopers ("Selma to Montgomery...")
"The troopers attacked the crowd with clubs and tear gas. Mounted police chased retreating marchers and continued to beat them" ("Selma to Montgomery...").
"Page Not Found." USCOURTSGOV RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2015. <http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/history-brown-v-board-education-re-enactment>.
United States. National Park Service. "Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)." National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, 28 Apr. 2015. Web. 11 May 2015. <http://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htm>.
McBride, Alec. PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 11 May 2015. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html>.
"Montgomery Bus Boycott." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 May 2015. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/montgomery-bus-boycott>.
Freedom Rides took place during the Spring of 1961, thanks to student activists.
After much debate and the need to continue to protest the African American cause, the Voting Rights Act of1965 was passed to finally give African Americans the legal right to formally protest their cause by voting
Dr Martin Luther king jr. was a revolutionary in the ways of nonviolent protest like Mahatma Gandhi before him organized his people who were wronged by the government. Dr King's message was one of peace and equality for those who had suffered for so long and fought so hard for the god given right that is protected by the constitution
May 19th, 1925 - February 21, 1965
In November of 1956, Rosa Parks refused to give up a seat for a white man, she was than arrested and fined.
In the following days, the African American community refused to ride the public bus system in Montgomery, Alabama.
Over the next few weeks the boycott would become first large-scale protest against racial segregation.
The boycott began on the first day of the court hearing and lasted 381 days during the supreme court hearing.
As a product of the boycotts, a young pastor named Martin Luther King Jr. emerged as the leading activist for desegregation.
Brown/Boycott Work Cited
Montgomery Bus Boycott
"The Death of Emmett Till." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 May 2015.
"Little Rock School Desegregation (1957)." Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. Stanford.edu, n.d. Web. 11 May 2015.
"Showdown in Little Rock." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, 2014. Web. 11 May 2015.
August 28th, 1963
What exactly happened???
The March on Washington was a major demonstration that more than 200,000 people attended.
Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech, "I Have a Dream"
The want for a march in Washington started in 1941, when A. Philip Randolph wanted to demonstrate the exclusions African Americans faced from the job industry.
The March on Washington was particularly for jobs, and an African American's equal right to that job.
Even musicians attended the march, such as Marian Anderson, Odetta, Joan Baez, and Bob Dylan
I Have a Dream
"We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protests to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force."
“mirrorpix-ulsters-bloody-sunday-13-die–army-accused-of-massacre.” Sonoma Christian Home. Sonoma Christian Home, 2014. Web. 11 May 2015.
“Selma to Montgomery March (1965).” The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. Stanford University, n.d. Web. 11 May 2015.
Emmett's beaten body
Roy and Milam Bryant
First President: Martin Luther King, Jr.
Competition with other radical groups (SNCC-Student Branch of SCLC & CORE)
Organized with the help of Ella Baker
Desgregation in a Classroom
Newspaper reporting court case
Freedom Summer of 1964
Boycotting a bus
-College students and others throughout the United States were invited to Mississippi to take part in what was then called the Mississippi Summer Project.
-Thousands of civil rights workers spread out through the South (primarily in Mississippi) in order to work on behalf of voter registration and participation.
-Their actions produced a violent response from some of the white southerners.
-Two of the white freedom workers (Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner) and one African American (James Chaney) were brutally killed by the KKK members.
-The Freedom Summer also produced the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) an integrated alternative to regular state party organization.
MLKJ Speech in Alabama
Protesting public transportation
Nine African American students refered to as the Little Rock Nine.
Enacted on August 6, 1965, signed byPresident Lyndon Johnson
Purpose of this act?
The act had guaranteed full voting rights to all American citizens
Reasons for the creation of this act:
Congress stated former anti-discrimination laws were not effective in enforcing the 15 Amendment
What did this act accomplish?
Allowed states to use federal voting restrars
Prevented states from chanigng their election laws without consent from the government
In eight states, the act prohibited use of literacy tests
Helped to increase African-American voter registration from 52% to 62%
Considered the most prosperous civil rights act passes by Congress
Targeted certain areas of the country beleived to contain highest discrimination rates
Baggins, Brian. "Black Panther Party." Black Panther Party. 2002. Web. 12 May 2015.
"The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense." Socialist Alternative. 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 12 May 2015.
Born into a family of 8 kids
"Emmett Till Murder Trial: Selected Testimony." Emmett Till Murder Trial: Selected Testimony. Web. 12 May 2015.
“I have come to see more and more that one of the most decisive steps that the Negro can take is that little walk to the voting booth. That is an important step. We've got to gain the ballot, and through that gain, political power.”
- NAACP Emancipation Day Rally, January 1, 1957
"American Freedom Stories: Emmett Till -
Legacy." YouTube. YouTube. Web. 12 May 2015.
Went to a juvenile detention center when he was younger and there he experienced Muslim enlightenment
"Little Rock Nine." Black History Month. N.p., 27 Mar. 2012. Web. 12 May 2015.
Dr. King lead a number of ralies and marches to promote the fair treatment and equality of all americans but his most well know and insparational was his march on washington.
His biggest impact was getting many to join the Muslim religion
He hated whites with a passion and sparked racial violence (radical and fast change, didn't want to wait for change. Believed whites were born to torture blacks) ("Malcolm X")
Created the Muslim Mosque Inc. and Organization of Afro-American Unity ("Malcolm X")
Muslim Mosque Inc.: worked to grow the Muslim population in the U.S. ("Malcolm X")
OAAU: worked to build relationships among the African Americans Malcolm fought with in the past (reintegration) ("Malcolm X")
Died by being stabbed 15 times when 3 assasi
Possibly by a conspiracy among Black Muslims and Nation of Islam ("Malcolm X")
Protesters yelling at one student at the Litle Rock School
The Purpose of the Panthers
Stop Violent, Protesting Southerners
In the future, address war & poverty
Brinkley, Alan. American History:
Connecting with the Past.
14th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2012. Print.
Check to the SCLC for Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr.'s Speaking Fee.
Chicago History Museum, 2014.
Cho, Nancy. "Southern Christian
BlackPast.org. BlackPast.org, n.d. Web. 10 May 2015.
Rejected from University of Maryland bc he was black
1933 successfully sued UOM for not admitting a black man to their school
was later appointed chief counsel for the NAACP
JFK appointed him to the U.S. court of appeals in 1965
made it to the supreme court two years later
Thurgood only lost 5 cases he presented in front of the supreme court
Know as the millon man march Dr. King brought together over 250,000 americans of all races in the capital to show the government that people believed in civil rights and equal treatment for all citizens
Elicksen, Debbie. "History Repeated." Debbie Elicksen's Subjects and Predicates. N.p., 23 Aug. 2010. Web. 12 May 2015.
101st Airborne Troops escorting black students into school
their main focus was to fight for the black people by whatever means necessary
this included self defense by using their own means of arms
also having community programs to support the ones who were suffering
but also because of how radical they are they gained a bad reputation with the US governemnt, especially the private and special police forces
applied to University of Mississippi which was highly segregated and worked with NAACP to try to desegregate it (he and many other people who worked with him were eventually successful)
was the NAACP’s first field officer in MISSISSIPPI
Evers moved to jackson and was highly threatened
was eventually killed by a white man who was found guilty in court
was nationally mourned and even had a Bob Dylan song written about him
US Army. 101st Airborne at Little Rock Central. 1957. Wikimedia. Web. 12 May 2015.
was in air force 1951-1960
enrolled in Jackson State College once arriving back in 1960
graduated in 1962 and enrolled in University of Mississippi
graduated in 1963 and worked to integrate the school
then went on to fight for integration in europe africa and the middle east
Communications director of SNCC
Tasks were to edit the SNCC newsletter known as The Student Voice
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Dream Speech." The
National Archives. The United States
Government, n.d. Web. May 2015.
"March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom."
Stanford University. Stanford University, n.d. Web. May 2015.
founded in 1909
aided in the integration of the armed forces in 1948 but also passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1964, and 1968, as well as the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
violence was targeted against NAACP officers during the Civil Rights Era
NAACP only covered legal affairs,but helped unconditionally with the upoport of protesters
Is still in service today
Little Rock Integration Protest. 1959. US News and World Report Magazine. Wikimedia. By Library of Congress. Web. 12 May 2015.
"NAACP: 100 Years of History." NAACP: 100 Years
of History. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 May 2015.
Protests against the integragation continued at the state capitol building
Predominately started in Albany & Birmingham, Georgia
Malcolm X. WILX News 10. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 May 2015.
Malcolm X - Mini Bio. YouTube. YouTube, 9 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 May 2015.
O'Brien, Steven G. "Malcolm X." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2015. Web. 12 May
Spread to other cities and states with demonstrations (Ex. FL)
"Voting Rights Act (1965)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2015. Web. 12 May 2015.
African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68) - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
Digital image. Wikipedia.org. Web.
The Birmingham Campaign generated MLK's "Letter from a Birmingham Jail."
"James Meredith: Visionary Videos: NVLP:
African American History." James Meredith: Visionary Videos: NVLP: African American History. National Visionary Leadership Project, 2013. Web. 12 May 2015.
"NAACP: 100 Years of History." NAACP: 100
Years of History. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 May 2015.
"NAACP History: Medgar Evers." NAACP
History: Medgar Evers. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 May 2015.
"Thurgood Marshall Biography." Thurgood
Marshall Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
This video displays a record of a $5,000 check discovered to pay for MLK's Civil Rights Rally at Soldier Field on June 21, 1964
LBJ's Voting Rights Act of 1965 was pushed by the peaceful demonstrations in Selma, Alabama
" The Voting Rights Act of 1965." Civil Rights Division Home Page. Web. 12 May 2015.
(Check to the SCLC for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Speaking Fee. Chicago History Museum, 2014.)
they were able to provide food and medical assistance to thousands of less fourtunate
gained numerous followers it's journey
one of the leaders Fred Hampton was successfully able to stop dangerly powerful street gangs from fighting with eachother
the black panthers showed to the United States government and many others that feared them that they were much more radical and not afraid to take violent measures to defend themselves and their beliefs
this is something people have not seen much of previous because of the non violent leaders who gained a lot of attention like MLK
even though their tactics were a little to extreme to make a huge legislative difference, they were able to prove to the government that lots of people are not afriaid to fight for the solutions they need to injustice, which still takes place in many different areas now
First Person: Sitting-in at the Lunch Counter.
Perf. Franklin E. McCain. Youtube. Associated Press, 30 Jan. 2010. Web. 11 May 2015.
Murray, Jonathan. "Greensboro Sit-In."
Carolina History Project.
John Locke Foundation, n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
(First Person: Sitting-in at the Lunch Counter.)
Feb. 1st, 1960, four Black college students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, walked into Woolworth Co.
At the lunch counter designated for Whites, they sat to be served.
After being denied, the men continued to sit and peacefully protest.
Continuing in the week, hundreds of people joined the sit-in, while some became violent on the streets to overcome segregation.
Progress included a mixed sitting environment afterword in stores.
Who, What, When, Where, Why?
THE FIGHT FOR A STRONGER VOTING RIGHTS ACT! Digital image. Isiah Factor. Web.
Interview of Franklin E. McCain
Protestors outside Woolworth Co.
On September 15, 1964 a bomb exploded before the Sunday morning church service at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama.This church was predominantly filled with blacks and it served as a meeting place for civil rights leaders.
Four young girls were killed and many people were injured.
With the deaths of four innocent girls, and injuries of dozens, it really helped to develop awareness to hard-fought and dangerous battles that African Americans were encountering with their fight for civil rights.
African American women who was arrested for disobeying bus segregation laws in Montgomery
one of 4 passengers (only who didn't move) asked to move to make room for whites boarding
charged for "refusing to obey bus driver"
secretary of the NAACP Montgomery chapter
arrest sparked rallying in a peaceful bus bpycott constructed by MLK Jr. which was first to gain national attention
while appeal held up in courts, federal judges declared bus segregation unconstitutional
Greensboro, NC is the location of the Greensboro Sit-In.
Bredhoff, Stacey, Wynell Schamel, and Lee Ann Potter. "The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks." Social Education 63, 4 (May/June 1999): 207-211.
"Rosa Parks and The Montgomery Bus Boycott." Wesleyan University. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
"Rosa Parks." The Smoking Gun. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
"Rosa Parks Was Arrested for Civil Disobedience." America's Story from America's Library. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
"Life of Rosa Parks." Go Social Studies Go. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
"Montgomery Bus Boycott." Amistad Digital Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2015.
Parks getting fingerprinted after arrest.
MLK Jr. speaks to crowd in church during bus boycott
Importance Today (con.)
The Wheels of the Bus Go to Freedom?
It also is an example about how wrong the American people were treating minorities and critized that the government didn't try to change anything without any knid of pressure
The Black Panther Party is one of many examples that shows what happens when there is much injustice and bias on the side of power in this country then and today
Buses of student activists left in May of 1961 from Washington D.C. to Jackson, Mississippi.
The idea started when CORE had a desegregated bus ride in 1947.
The idea evolved when the SNCC took more initiative with sit-ins, non-violent protests, and their boycotts. The SNCC helped the Freedom Rides take off.
The reasoning behind the trip to the south was to challenge segregated public travel accomodations.
Civil Rights Act of 1968. Digital image. Wikipedia. Web.
MLK "Always Fight With Love" speech
Black Panthers Short Documentary
Unfortunately, the trip was violent because of others: not the student activists.
"The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 13 May 2015.
"Freedom Rides." Stanford University.
Stanford University, n.d. Web. May 2015.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Enacted in 1964
What did this act enforce?
This act declared it forbidden to discriminate upon any person by means of sex and race in hiring, firing, and promoting
section 703 (a) within the final legislation it was stated that it was unlawful for any employer to "fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any indvidual ... because of such induvidual's color, religion, sex, or national origin"
The EEOC enforces laws that prohibit the action of discriminating against an induvidual
Title VII in the cted the Equal Employment Oppurtunity Commission (EEOC)
Why was this act created?
During the 1960s, citizens aware of the 14th Amendment, the "equal ptection of the laws" hoped to have higher authority enforce them
Government debated upon this question: "Does the constitution's prohibition of denying equal protection always ban the use of racial, ethnic, or gender critieria in an attempt to bring social Justice and social benefits?"
The Black Panthers Revisited. The New York Times, 23 Jan. 2015. Web. 13 May 2015. <
The year of 1968 in the month of April
"The Civil Rights Act signed into law...popularly known as the Fair Housing Act–prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin and sex"
Because of much of the attention the movement was getting, it was difficult to put into law at first, but that easily changed after MLK's assasination
This bill was a follow up to the one of 1964 to address and give the rest of the rights to blacks and minorities that they were deprived of
This Act (which is more specifically known as the Fair Housing Act) was extremely important being the last peice if legislation supporting the blacks in the civil rights era and setting the precedent (with many others) for they way they are treated today
"Fair Housing Act of 1968." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fair-housing-act>.
"1964 Revisited: Antiwar Voters Were Right to Back LBJ After All!" Reason.com. N.p., 03 May 2012. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://reason.com/blog/2012/05/03/1964-revisited-antiwar-voters-were-right>.
"1968: Federal Fair Housing Act." 1968: Federal Fair Housing Act. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://www.bostonfairhousing.org/timeline/1968-Fair-Housing-Act.html>.
"Civil Rights." Civil Rights Act of 1968. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <http%3A%2F%2Fimgbuddy.com%2Fcivil-rights-act-of-1968.asp>.
Civil Rights of 1968 Video
Works Cited Freedom Summer/Birmingham
"Birmingham Church Bombing." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/birmingham-church-bombing>.
"Freedom Summer." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/freedom-summer>.
"Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (1960–1973) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (1960–1973) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
"SNCC 1960-1966: Six Years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee." SNCC 1960-1966: Six Years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
"Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)." Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
"CNN: SNCC's Legacy: A Civil Rights History." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
Lyndon Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Lyndon Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act into law on August 6, 1965