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Fibre Types/Effects Warm-Up/Cool Down

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Paul McIntosh

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of Fibre Types/Effects Warm-Up/Cool Down

FTG (Type 2b)
ST (Type 1)
FOG Type 2a
Explain what determines how the muscle fibres respond?

Think structure: Colour, size, no of capilliaries, mitochondria, concentration myoglobin & glycogen stores?

Think function: Contractile speed/strength, resistance to fatigue, aerobic/anaerobic capacity?
1. How might the mix of muscle fibre types determine the success of a performer? 3 marks

2. Identify 3 structural characteristics of muscle fibre types associated with athletes participating in endurance events. 3 marks.


1.(mixed)people with a mix of muscle fibre types may perform successfully in both aerobic and anaerobic activity or team games (with varying intensities of activity)Type 1,

2a, 2b (for mix) /
examples of team games of varying intensities

2.(slow/
Type 1)People with high/higher proportion of slow twitch or Type 1 or SO fibres most likely to perform successfully in aerobic or endurance activities or marathon running or low intensity, long duration activitiesexamples of any endurance events that show performer is working aerobically /
high resistance to fatigue

3.(fast)People with high/higher proportion of fast twitch or Type 2 or FG or FOG fibres most likely to perform successfully in anaerobic or explosive events or long jump or sprinting or throwing events or high intensity, short duration activities examples of any explosive events that show performer is working anaerobically /low resistance to fatigue
1.small / red
2. many mitochondria
3. high density of myoglobin
4. high density of capillaries
5. low glycogen stores / low PC stores
6. high density of aerobic enzymes
http://www.asanatomyphysiology.wikispaces.com/

Describe the different types of muscular contraction SO THAT we can analyse the role of antagonistic muscle pairs?
Isometric: When a muscle contracts , but then remains the same length and there is no movement.
Isotonic:
Concentric when a muscle shortens as it contracts
Eccentric when a muscle lengthens.
In pairs you must come up with the following:
Sporting example using the antagonistic pairs.
One example must be eccentric with the other containing concentric and eccentric contraction.
Identify the specific muscles involved.
Identify the types of muscular contraction that is seen.
Learning Outcomes: Explain how different fibre types look and function & how muscles contract SO THAT you can apply these to sporting situations.
Eccentric
Concentric
Isometric
Fibre Types
http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/LTE3NDk0ODM2Mzg
Reflect on our knowledge of muscle fibre types & movement and understand the effects of warm-up & cool down on skeletal muscle so that we know how this impacts upon performance.
The effect of warm-up & cool down on muscular contraction.
In your groups each individually write down as many questions as possible here you can think of. Use the key words!

Facts Plenary!
Now pool you questions together as a group.
Can you improve the quality of your questions?
Maybe change some closed ones into open?

Finally what would be your top 3 questions which would cover effect of warm-up and cool down?
Present your findings!


Out of 3 what score would ypu give yourself on your knowledge of firstly muscle fibres:
Think structure: Colour, size, no of capilliaries, mitochondria, concentration myoglobin & glycogen stores?

Think function: Contractile speed/strength, resistance to fatigue, aerobic/anaerobic capacity?

Then do the same for anatagonistic pairs:
Concentric, eccentric movement. Agonist/antagonist, articulating bones, joint types.

Finally rate yourself out of 3 on your knowledge of effect of warm-up and cool down on skeletal muscle.
20 word challenge!
Write down in less than 20 words what todays lesson is all about?
FTG Type 2b
FOG. Type 2a
ST
Task 2:
Can you explain what the graph shows? Use key words like, contraction speed/force and resistance to fatigue. Also look at your table on Edmodo to help you!
How can you apply what you have written to a sporting event?
Task 1:
10 minutes:
Using Educreations construct a continuum with Type 1 at one end and Type 2b at the other.
Collect pictures from as many different sports as possible and place them where you think along the continuum.
Force
Time
Summary:

Using your fibre type information chart can you answer the following:

1. How does the presence of O2 with ST fibres affect their structure and function?

2. How is the short duration of Type 2b linked to their structure and function?

3. How is type 2a able to be effectively used for a 400m race. Talk about their structure and function.
1. Colour of slow twitch?
2. Colour of type 2b?
3. Size of slow twitch?
4. Size of type 2b?
5. What is myoglobin?
6. What are mitochondria?
7. Name the fibre types that are anaerobic?
8. How do type 1 contract?
9. With how much force do type 2b contract?
10. What fibre type is best suited to a 400m runner?

Understand the structure & role of motor units in skeletal muscle contraction SO THAT you can analyse how the central nervous system controls muscle movement.
Key terms!

Motor Neurons
Motor Unit
Action potential
Neurotransmitter
'All-or-none-law'
The motor unit is a collection of muscle fibers along with the nerve that tells those muscle fibers to contract. Each group of muscles is innervated by only one nerve.
What could be an example of a nerve talking to hundreds of muscle fibres?

What could be an example of a nerve talking to thousands of muscle fibres?
Before you curl a dumbbell an electrical signal starts in your brain and travels down your spinal cord to the lower cervical region where it activates a different nerve that goes out to your biceps. This nerve that exits your spinal cord and reaches your biceps is a motor neuron. (“Neuron,” by the way, is just another name for “nerve.”) The activated motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which attaches to receptors on your muscles that create a cascade of events that contracts your biceps. (Of course, this all happens in fractions of a second.)
an electrical signal starts in your brain and travels down your spinal cord to the lower cervical region
where it activates a different nerve that goes out to your biceps.
nerve that exits your spinal cord and reaches your biceps is a motor neuron.
the activated motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine,
which attaches to receptors on your muscles that create a cascade of events that contracts your biceps.
When you curl a dumbell
If the function of 'motor unit' is to carry nerve impulses from the brain so that muscles contract, what then is a motor unit made up of?
With the motor neuron being the cell that transmits the nerve impuls to a group of muscle fibres.
You must recruit as many motor units as possible with every rep of every exercise.
Application To Training.
The smallest motor neurons are recruited first, followed by a progressively larger motor neurons. This is the basis of the “size principle.”
The combination of the motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. That’s why it can be said that the smallest motor units are recruited first, followed by progressively larger motor units.
https://answergarden.ch/351943
Action Potential:

This is the positive electrical charge inside the nerve and muscle cells which conduct the nerve impulse down the neuron and into the muscle fibre.
What do you notice about the point where the axon's motor end plates meet the muscle fibres? This is the neuromuscular junction.
How does the action potential get to the muscle fibre?
Small gap called the synaptic cleft?
Neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (Ach).
Neurotransmitter helps the nerve impulse
across the gap
Enough secretion of neurotransmitter & electrical
charge is above a threshold, this
allows creation of muscle action potential.
This action potential creates a wave of muscular contraction.
Homework:

'Research and take notes on the 'all or none law' regarding skeletal muscular contraction.

Produce a flow diagram summarising the role of a motor unit. Lets test now what you know!

When we stimulate a motor unit it results in increased strengtrh and force of contraction.
1. Another name for a motor neuron?
2. What is a motor unit made up of?
3. Name for the positive electrical charge inside the nerve and muscle cell?
4. Point where the axon's motor end plate meets the muscle fibre?
5. Name of the gap between the motor end plate and muscle fibre?
6. What helps the action potential cross this gap from the end plate to the muscle fibre?
7. Name of the chemical secreted here that transmits the nerve impulse?
8. What needs to be reached in the motor unit for ALL the muscle fibres to contract?
9. What is this law called?
10. What happens when the action potential doesn't reach a certain value/charge?
Nervous Control Of Muscle Contraction:
'All or none law'

* The 'action potential' is the message sent from the brain down the nervous system which carries the message to the muscle for it to contract.


* If it doesn't reach the threshold charge, none of the muscle fibres will contract.
* The action potential must reach a threshold charge to cause all of the muscle fibres to contract at the same time with maximum force.
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