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Ch. 25-27, Ancient Greece

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Al Palange

on 14 April 2013

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Transcript of Ch. 25-27, Ancient Greece

25 Geography and the Settlements
26 Governments of Ancient Greece
27 Life in 2 City-States: Athens & Sparta Chapters 25, 26 & 27 26.5 Democracy (500 B.C.E.) One person inherits power.
Power to children after death. (eldest son) Monarchy (2000-800 B.C.E.) Oligarchy (800-600 B.C.E) Power in the hands of one person who is not a lawful king.
Son does not inherit power Tyranny (600-500 B.C.E.) All citizens share power City-States (Hometown)
Shared a common language
Governed themselves
different laws, money, army
They did not consider Greece to be all one country Powers Conducted religious ceremonies.
Led army during wars.
Used armed soldiers to punish people. Kings Council Aristocrats (best)
Wealthy men who inherited large pieces of land.
No real power.
King depended on them.
eventually overthrew the monarchy. Power in the hands of a few wealthy men. (Oligarchs)
Aristocrats
A few Merchants
Very comfortable lives
Ignored the needs of most people
Used army to force people to obey Effects on the poor
Hard work all day in fields
Rich became richer, poor became poorer
Hated oligarchs
Turned to leaders in army who promised to improve their lives Controlled people by force
Usually military leaders
promised people more rights Some ruled well
Others abused power Ancient Greek Pottery The killing of Hipparchus Tyrant-person who forced oligarchs from power. The assembly
lawmaking group
Any free man could speak in the assembly Representative
Democracy Direct Democracy People could be persuaded
Decisions reversed too quickly Elect representatives to makes decision in the best interest of the people. People vote on issues directly.
Every citizen can vote on every issue. Ch. 25, Geography and the Settlement of Greece
25.1 Introduction
flourished from 750-338 BC
rocky, mountainous peninsula & islands surrounded by seas
isolated small villages and farms, colonized the Mediterranean vocabulary
Mediterranean Sea – great sea that separated Europe, Asia, and Africa
Aegean Sea – arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey
Adriatic Sea – arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Italy
peninsula - land surrounded on 3 sides by water
isolated – separate
colonies - countries ruled by another country
colonist – one living in a colony
merchant – one who sells goods for money
trade – buying, selling, or bartering goods
settlement – small village
shelter – protection providing structure 25.2 Isolated Communities & Difficulties Travel

-land travel – difficult & dangerous, slower than boat travel
hard to cross mountains isolated communities
unpaved rocky or muddy roads
regular attacks by bandits
only shelters were provided by inns; no food, bedding, etc.

-boat travel – mostly during the day, stayed close to shore
pirate attacks occurred regularly
storms could divert or sink vessels
rocky shorelines caused many problems 25.3 Farming
-wasn’t easy; rocky land, scarce water, rain mostly in winter, no major rivers, little flatland
-farmers built flat steps on hillsides for planting
-shortages of good farmland led to wars
agriculture & livestock
-wheat, barley, grapes, olives, nut & fruit trees, small vegetable gardens
-bees, sheep, goats, oxen, mules, donkeys, pigs, chickens
-they looked beyond the mainland for new sources of food & goods 25.4 Starting Colonies
-as communities grew in Greece there was not enough farmland to feed all the people

-settlers had to find places elsewhere with natural harbors, good farmland and people not strong enough to prevent them from settling

-colonists established settlements in other lands and sent food home, this helped spread Greek culture throughout Turkey, Spain, France, Italy, Africa, and along the Black Sea coastline

-some colonies became wealthy through farming & trade 25.5 Trading for Needed Goods
 -Greek settlements traded among city-states, colonies, and the Mediterranean to get the goods they needed

-boat travel was slow and dangerous with no compasses, charts, lighthouses & only the stars to guide them at night

-trips from the mainland to colonies could take months
merchants traded many goods usually by ship (see map pg. 250) The Rise of Democracy ch. 26 Geography and the
Settlement of Greece
ch. 25 UNIT 5 26.1 Introduction
Isolated settlements had many things in common but developed in different ways
spoke the same language
communities thought of themselves as individual “cities” not as one country
each city-state had its own laws, army, money, & forms of government
Greek city-states’ four main forms of government
• monarchy • oligarchy
• tyranny • democracy 26.2 Monarchy- One Person Inherits Power
power goes to children after death of king (eldest son)
kings made laws, acted as judges, conducted religious ceremonies, led armies, & punished those who broke the law or didn’t pay taxes
councils were made up of aristocrats –wealthy men who owned large pieces of land
in some city-states aristocrats insisted that kings be elected
eventually aristocrats overthrew monarchies & by 800 BC kings no longer ruled 26.3 Oligarchy: A Few People Share Power
Oligarchs-power in the hands of a few wealthy men
aristocrats, a few merchants
very comfortable lives
ignored the needs of most people
used army to force people to obey
Effects on the poor
hard work all day in fields
rich became richer, poor became poorer
the people hated oligarchs
turned to leaders in army who promised to improve their lives 26.4 Tyranny: One Person Takes Power by Force
power in the hands of one person who is not a lawful king
son does not inherit power
controlled people by force
usually military leaders, promised people more rights
some ruled well, others abused power vocabulary
monarch - single ruler; king, queen, emperor, etc.
aristocrat - member of the most powerful class in a society
oligarch - one of several rulers
tyrant - one who illegally seizes power
direct democracy - every citizen votes on every issue
representative democracy - the citizens vote for representatives who vote on issues in the citizens best interest
citizen - an individual member of a democracy
assembly - a group of citizens with power to pass laws vocabulary
•monarch - single ruler; king, queen, emperor, etc.
•aristocrat - member of the most powerful class in a society
•oligarch - one of several rulers
•tyrant - one who illegally seizes power
•direct democracy - every citizen votes on every issue
•representative democracy - the citizens vote for representatives who vote on issues in the citizens best interest
•citizen - an individual member of a democracy
•assembly - a group of citizens with power to pass laws Ch. 27 Life in Two City-States: Athens & Sparta

27.1 Introduction
The 2 most important city-states;
Athens
• walled city near the sea, busy port
• urban mix of people and craftsmen of all economic ranges would debate the issues of the day
Sparta
• rural farming area on the plain, no walls
• the people & architecture were simple and plain
• military presence in the streets vocabulary
Peloponnesus – peninsula forming the southern part of the mainland of Greece
agora - marketplace
priestess – female priest 27.2 Comparing Two City-States
how they are alike- both Greek cities and not much else
how they are different; Athens
-central Greece near the Aegean Sea
-leading naval power
-eager to spread ideas and learn from others, developed strong relationships with other city-states
-encouraged art & architecture
-valued art & culture Sparta
-on fertile plain between 2 mountains
-powerful army
-suspicious of outsiders, often took by force from their neighbors
-plain and simple
-valued strength & simplicity 27.3 Athenian Government
• became a democracy around 500 BC
• only free men, over 18 & born in Athens could be citizens (women & slaves could not)
• every citizen took part in govt (‘The Council of 500’ ran the day to day govt business) (‘The Assembly’ debated & voted on laws)
• every citizen had the right to speak at Assembly meetings
• Athenians were proud of their freedom 27.4 Athenian Economy
• based on trade of honey, olive oil, silver, pottery, etc.
• near the sea with a good harbor
• traded with other city-states and foreign lands for goods & resources the needed; wood from Italy, grain from Egypt, etc.
• developed their own coins to make trade easier 27.5 Education in Athens
Athenians believed having good citizens was the main purpose of education; therefore boys were educated differently than girls

boys’ education
healthy body & mind meant;
•physical training
-wrestling, gymnastics, military, etc.
book learning
-reading, writing, arithmetic, literature, music, debate, public speaking to become political leaders

girls’ education
did not learn to read or write
cook, clean, spin thread, weave cloth, sing, dance, etc. http://prezi.com/lob1lzobfuva/athens-and-sparta/?kw=view-lob1lzobfuva&rc=ref-28814271 another ch. 27 Prezi 27.6 Women and Slaves in Athens
Women
• could not vote or attend assembly
• a few important women were priestesses
• most spent the day managing the household and bringing up children
Slaves
• born into, or captured in wars
• many slaves in Athens
• some performed jobs of great skill
• unlucky ones worked in the silver mines for 10 hours a day 27.7 Spartan Government
Oligarchy with an assembly
decisions made by a much smaller group called Council of Elders
two kings and 28 other men who were elected by the assembly
Council of Elders
prepared laws to be voted on by the Assembly 27.8 Spartan Economy
• relied on farming and conquering other people
• used slaves and noncitizen to produce needed goods
• some trade but discouraged it
• feared trade would lead to new ideas and weaken them
• did not have a coin money system
• instead used heavy iron bars 27.9 Education in Sparta
• to produce men who could protect the city-state
• trained to fight from the age of seven, even girls
• boys lived in barracks- trained in wrestling, boxing, foot racing, gymnastics, and military training
• fitness test at age 20 to become full citizens
• could not live at home until the age of 30 27.10 Women and Slaves in Sparta
Women expected to be strong healthy and ready to fight
had many rights but
could not vote or attend assembly
a few important women were priestesses.
most spent the day managing the household and bringing up children
Slaves (helots) were people who had been conquered
-born into slavery, or captured in wars
-many more helots than citizens
-treated harshly
-Spartan government would declare war on helots at times
in order to legally kill any slaves they thought might rebel
-some performed jobs of great skill.
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