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New Energies New Markets - Green Cities

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Cristobal Vera

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of New Energies New Markets - Green Cities

Energy Consumption
per Sector
Source: http://climatechange.thinkaboutit.eu/
Land-use Planning
land use is driven by public policies
all levels are involved: city, region and state
need for coordination
no international common structure
Green Cities
Eda Sarıdoğan
Maxime Laurenty
Nastiti Puspitosari
Annika Päsik
Cristóbal Vera

New Energies & New Markets
Jean-Pierre Ponssard
Over 50%
of population lives in cities

Significant transfers from rural to urban areas
Water leakage
How much is our consumption of water in one year?
Easier... How much is per day?
The average in Europe is 105.000 [L/years]
... 288 Liters per day!
Source: Anglian Water Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annual Report 2012
Major concern
In many industrialized cities,
Upgrading and replacement of pipes has contributed
to net savings of
of potable water.
Source:Towards a green economy
1/3 GHG emissions

70 % CO2
Water heating
Towards a more efficient building sector
Improvement in building envelope
Better technology
Renewable energy technology integration to buildings (solar)
More environmental friendly materials
Plants as air purifiers and integrated greenery
Smart and thoroughly by designing
Regulation and policy
Energy certificate (LEED, Energy Star)
National regulation for new buildings (passive house, nearly zero energy house)
Subsidies (refurbishment, RES technology)
Pilot projects (new and refurbishment)

Steps towards green
Example cases

75% of urban areas are coastal
Largest cities: consuming
⅔ of the world's energy
& responsible for
75% of global CO2 emissions

Going green: Urban density helps a lower carbon footprint through more efficient infrastructure and planning
branch of public policy seeking to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way
congestion, overloaded structure

driven by low oil prices for long:
urban sprawl
: energy-consuming;
peripheric commercial areas

Smart growth vs "car-dependent" development: direct cost savings for building road and utility infrastructure between US$5,000 and US$75,000 per household unit
Source: UNEP, 2011 "Cities – Investing in energy and resource efficiency"

Denser cities
– to favor
instead of
less weekend commuting
improving air quality
filtering waste water
mitigating all local weather extremes
reducing heat islands phenomenon

combine residential areas with commercial, social and work places
Heat islands phenomenon
Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2013, Heat islands group
Less Emissions
Life quality
covering only
2% of total land

22 % of global GHG emissions
What can be done?
Congestion fees to drive in city centers
Good public transport network
Compact city: Cycling & walking
Dedicated fast &safe lines for buses, cyclists and pedestrians
Car-sharing, public bicycle networks
: Accidents & Health Problems
Better signaling, real-time information
Oil dependency

Efforts in cities is necessary
Public authorities are the main actors
Local problems and solutions
Need for investment
Overcome lobbying, corruption and consumption patterns
Good initiatives ... Go further

Thank you!
Adaptation of alternative fuels
Steps towards green
230,000 inhabitants
‘Germany’s most sustainable major city’
Political, economical and mental attitudes that encourage sustainable living and economic activity
Nature and landscape protection:
Forest :

of its total area
Local Energy Supply Concept since 1986
Private households:
Passive house

Building costs

public buildings:
solar facilities
70 %
of journeys by non-car transport
Over 20% lower CO2 emission (since 1992)
2030 CO2 target: 40%
Think globally, Act locally!
... while
saving 90%
of bills
Car ownership: €18,000 for a parking lot
Speed limit 30 km/h
New York
8.4 million people under mayoral area
2030 CO2 target: 30% reduction with reference to 2005
Buildings: 74%
Transportation: 21%
Industrial & Other: 5%
Emissions derived from:
New York

Greener, Greater Buildings Plan
targeting NYC’s largest
existing buildings
(half of area) 45 % citywide carbon emissions.
cost $5.2 billion while saving $12.2 billion
net benefit of $7 billion
2030 goal:
GHG emissions
reduction by at least
5.3 %
from the 2009 baseline
Multi-storey housing consumes less energy per occupant than single-family houses does

Green spaces: 20% of city's area
Congestion problems:
6 millions cars used per day for less than 11 Millions inhabitants!
Public transportation created in 2008 with the private sector: estimation of -13% reduction CO2 emission, up to 30% time reduction

Social experiment
5000 inhabitants
By foot or tram near walking distance
As of 2009 around 70% of the households had chosen to live without a private car.
Urban Metabolism
Combination of economic growth with social equity and minimum waste production
(including greenhouse gas emissions)
Energy Consumption in High Income Cities
Direct CO2 savings from improvement in building envelopes
Energy Consumption in Asian Cities
What can be
Identification of potential energy sources
Energy efficiency optimization
Reduction of energy consumption (by adopting
green energy system
Identification of potential energy sources
Identification of geographical and climatic condition of the city
Analysis of the potential energy resources (
preferably RE resources
Planning of energy mix (
possibilities to introduce RE resources to the current energy resources

Energy Efficiency Optimization
Prevention of energy distribution dissipation
Node to node controlled distribution line
Regular maintenance check for each producing plant
Reducing energy consumption
Adoption of green energy systems, e.g :
Renewable micro-generation
District heating
Combined heat energy plants (CHP)
Energy saving lighting
Land use issue:
population growth +33% by 2020
66% of informal settlements (waste/water/electricity related problems)

Waste: terrible before 2005, 10% recycled now - 35% by 2015 (300 000 tonnes/year); waste picker still exist.

Bad air quality (petrochemical refining, low public transit)
Six million domestic and business customers
How this can be modify to mitigate CO2 emissions?
Reduce water consumption

Reduce water lost in the distribution system

Improve wastewater treatment

Improve the efficiency of water usage
Good materials and intensive maintenance
Water meters!
Generating energy from the sludge from sewage treatment, use renewable energies!
Education: make the link with
sustainable development!
485,273 Tonnes CO2e
By concentrating people and activities, cities have become centers of the "waste" economy!

Some numbers!
Waste generated per person: average of
465 kg/year
Latin-America and
511 kg/year
in Europe!

waste disposed of in landfill
produces methane, which has a global warming potential
21 times greater than CO2
The waste sector contributes a quarter of the avoided GHG emissions in 2008 in Europe.
-68.1 million tonnes CO2-e/year
The waste management sector is therefore a very relevant sector due to the reduction in reliance upon landfill for residual disposal
How this can be modify to mitigate CO2 emissions?
Key factors:
Reduce, recycle and reuse waste
Composting is a further critical component for greening waste.
Various paths to the same end...
Waste reduction:
place the cost of dealing with waste on producers
Good numbers
400 kg
of garbage/resident
40% of waste
Waste as a valuable raw material:
getting energy from waste
public awareness, tradition, ensuring that sorting and recycling is very easy, with collection points on nearly every street corner
Specially purchased sacks, free collection points for recyclable materials, fines.
A power plant is Amsterdam provide 300,000 GJ of district heat, reducing CO2 production in the city by 470 kilotonnes
Per-capita GHG emissions 1990 and 2008 for landfill
Waste or
Consumer’s carbon

But, do cause a carbon impact!
Source: IEA Technology Roadmap 2013 "Energy efficient building envelopes"
Source: GRID - Arendal (UNEP) http://www.grida.no/
Source: European Green City Index, Economist Intelligence Unit.
WWF - Reinventing the cities: 3 prerequisites for greening urban infrastructures
Siemens Green City Index (by The Economist Intelligence Unit)
Energy Cities - 30 proposais for the energy transition of cities and towns (english & french)
UNEP - Gren Cities:Investing in energy and resource efficiency
To go further
Full transcript