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Abraham Maslow

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Amanda Polking

on 18 July 2014

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Transcript of Abraham Maslow

Originates from participating in activities that are considered socially constructive
Satisfaction of this need results in the ability to feel confident in our strength, worth, and adequacy
Feelings of inferiority, helplessness, and discouragement may surface if esteem needs are not achieved

Examples of Needs:
Respect of others
Respect by others in the form of:
Social Success
Fullest development of the self.
Stemmed from humanistic psychology
“represents growth of an individual toward fulfillment of the highest needs” (Olson, 2013).
The motivation for self-actualization leads people in different directions (McLeod)
Continual process
Measured through the perceptions of peak experiences

Examples of Needs:
problem Solving
Lack of prejudice
Acceptance of facts

Abraham Maslow

Born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York
First of 7 children
Parents uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia
Experienced a Difficult childhood and has a strained relationship with both parents
Mother rejected him and was not affectionate
Father instilled an intense drive to succeed
Embarrassed by his small physique and large nose
As a teenager, experienced an inferior complex
Unsuccessful in athletics, turned to reading and education
Obtained mediocre grades in high school
Was accepted into City College of New York
Attended Cornell, left because of poor grades
Eventually graduated from City College
University of Wisconsin for Graduate school and received his Ph.D. in 1934
Postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University
Married Bertha Goodman, 1st cousin
had 2 daughters
Taught at Brooklyn College until 1951 and then at Brandeis University until 1969
Abraham Maslow
Biography Continued
Bertha- his wife
John B. Watson's- behavioral Psychology
World War II
Birth of his 1st child
Alfred Adler
Ruth Benedict
Max Wertheimer
Necessary Conditions in order to gratify the self-actualization need (Schultz):
We must be free of constraints imposed by society and by ourselves.
We must not be distracted by the lower-order needs.
We must be sure in our self-image and in our relationships with other people.
We must have a realistic knowledge of our strengths and weaknesses.
Do all that they are capable of
Only about 1% of the entire population will become self-actualized
Maslow recognized that even self-actualized people are not perfect, they also have fault and tend to be:
occasionally borning
Self-Actualized People
Self-Actualization Need
Self-Actualization Need Continued
Can be expressed through a close relationship with a friend, love, mate, or through social relationships formed in a group
Becoming more difficult in our mobile society
Ways to satisfy this need:
Join a church
If needs are not being met, individuals experience loneliness or emptiness
Love is not equated to sex, which is a physiological need
Examples of Needs:
Sexual Intimacy
Requires stability, security, and freedom of fear and anxiety
Reducing uncertainty
Generally an important aspect for infants and anxious adults
Most adults have fulfilled safety needs however, the needs still impact behavior
Security of:
Related to survival
If a need is not met, the desire will rule the individuals life
Maslow believed most of these needs are achieved easily
Examples of Needs:
Core Concept: Hierarchy of Needs
5 innate needs that are
Needs can be influenced or dominated by learning, social expectations, and fear of disapproval
Stimulate and direct human behavior
Ranked in terms of a hierarchy
Non humans can possess the lower more basic needs
We are not driven by all needs at once, generally only one will dominate our personality
Characteristics of Needs
The lower the need, the greater the strength and priority
Higher needs materialize later in life:
Physiological and safety needs tend to appear in
Belongingness and esteem needs tend to appear in
Needs for self-actualization does not appear until
Lower needs are considered
deficit needs
failure to satisfy them results in crisis or lack in the individual
Higher needs are considered
growth needs
lead to improved health and longevity, contentment, happiness and fulfillment
Core Concept: Metamotivation
Self-actualizing individuals differ form others in terms of basic motivation
(B-motivation) specific type of motivation for self-actualizers
Goal: enhance their lives by "acting to increase tension to experience a variety of stimulating and challenging events" (Schultz)
- states of being, such as goodness, uniqueness, and perfection rather than goal objects
- failure to satisfy metaneeds
Core Concept: Cognitive Needs
Maslow modified the hierarchy later to include cognitive needs
Humans have the desire to increase their intelligence and pursue knowledge
Impossible to become self-actualizing without meeting the need to know and understand
Core Concept: Self-Determination Theory
Contemporary extension of the self-actualization theory
Facilitated by a persona's focus on
intrinsic motivation
, or engaging in an activity due to interest and challenge of the activity
Extrinsic motivation
- involves engaging in some activity only for the sake of external rewards
praise, promotion, etc.

3 basic needs to achieve self-actualization and well-being:
Internal Conflicts
People are unique
Not reaching self-actualization until adulthood or at all
Not everyone will completely fulfill each need
Intrinsic Motivation
External Conflicts
Childhood experiences
Extrinsic Motivation
Maladaptive Behaviors
Jonah Complex
- when attempting to maximize our own potential and encounter a situation where we fear in our abilities to cope
Coping Mechanisms
Born with the ability to achieve self-actualization
Fulfilling basic needs
Maintain order and security in life even after need it met
Saving for future
Buying insurance
Remaining in a secure job
Implications for Counselors
Individuals trying to cope with daily stresses have utilized Maslow's views to aid in difficult issues:
Business and governmental individuals
Healthcare professionals
Having a basic understanding of Maslow's hierarchy of needs will assist counselors in both school and community setting to get on the leading edge of a clients by understanding potential issues causing grief.
Cultural Considerations
Did not use case studies, experimental or correlative methods in his research
Sample too small
Selected participants by individuals whom he admired for criteria of self-actualization
Hierarchy of needs does not apply to everyone
Cultures and self-esteem has been researched in over 50 countries
Japan college students consistently lower
African American teenagers report higher self-esteem than Caucasian teens
Self-esteem in white adults age 60 higher than African Americans age 60
Studies performed in the United States confirm self-esteem changes as individuals age
Research conducted in Taiwan concluded self-esteem increased throughout life but, very little after the age of 30
View of Human Nature
Humanistic and Optimistic
Personality determined by the interaction if heredity and environment
If given proper conditions, individuals are capable of reaching the highest level of need.
"In any given moment we have two options: to step forward to growth or to step back into safety." Maslow
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