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Chapter 6: Sensations and Perceptions

Psychology project.
by

Peyton Runions

on 15 April 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Sensations and Perceptions

Psychology 201 Chapter 6: Sensations and Perceptions Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception. Transduction This law states that for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion. Weber's Law Thresholds Sensory Adaptation The process of converting one form of energy into another that your brain can use is called TRANSDUCTION.
The 3 basic steps to all our sensory systems is:
Receive sensory stimulation
Transform that stimulation into neural impulses.
Deliver that neural information to the brain. Thresholds are the point at which a stimulus is of sufficient intensity to begin to produce an effect. The 2 types of thresholds are: Absolute Threshold: the smallest intensity of a stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus to be detected.

Difference Threshold:
Also known as the just noticeable difference , is the minimum difference in stimulation that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. This means that two or more objects should have a difference by a certain amount by percent. Although sensory adaptation reduces our sensitivity, it offers an important benefit: When we are constantly exposed to stimulus that does not change, we become less aware of it because, our nerve cells fire less frequently. Constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on our experience and expectations Perceptual Set: a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that greatly affects what we perceive Context Effects A given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions, partly because of our differing set, but also because of the immediate context. Vision •What we see is visible light. Visible light being pulses of Electromagnetic Energy
•The portion that we see is a very thin slice of the entire spectrum •The wave lengths determine the hue/color of what we see
-short wave lengths are blue, long waves are red •The brightness or intensity of the light is determined by the amplitude of the wavelength The Eye:
•Light enters through the cornea, which protects the eye and bends light to provide focus.
• The light then passes through the pupil, a small adjustable opening.
•Then the iris, the colored part of our eyes, is a muscle that dilates or constricts in response to light intensity and our inner emotion •When light enters into the eye, Rods and cones detect the light and then send neural impulses to the brain.
•The rods are receptors that detect black, white, and grey. Which help with peripheral and twilight vision when the cones don’t respond.
•Cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations under good light conditions. •Info processing begins in the retina’s neural layers in the eye which is actually brain tissue that has migrated to the eye during early fetal development
•After the processing has been done by the 130 million or so Cones and rods, the info goes to your brain, specifically the occipital lobe •Feature detectors – nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features like shapes, angles, or movement
•Parallel processing – the brain processing all the info coming in simultaneously The objects we see is reflected off the object

•Young- Helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory – theory that the retina contains 3 different color receptors – when stimulated in combos, can produce the perception of any color

•Opponent process theory - Basically means when our eyes see a color for too long, we tire the receptor that sees that color and start seeing the opposite of the tired color •Proximity – when we group nearby figures

•Continuity – perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather that discontinuous ones

•Closure – fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object
Depth perception – enables us to estimate an object’s distance
Binocular cues – depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depends on both eyes Hearing Emotion and Motivation Sound Waves Molecules in the air, bump into each other creating waves of compressed and expanded air. Their frequency determines their pitch and sound waves vary. The Other Senses The Ear Touch Pain Taste Smell Body Position and Movement Thanks For Listening Perceptions are influenced, top-down, not only by our expectations and by the context, but also by our emotions and motivation. Groups: Bottom-up processing: starts at the sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing Top-Down processing: •The “sense of touch” is a mix of distinct skin senses for pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.

•The “sense of touch” plays a major role in our early life, babies gain weight faster and go home sooner if they are stimulated by hand massage.

•In affection touch is key like hugging and kissing your significant other.

•Even with strangers you get a initial feeling when you first touch someone.
•There are rare people that are born without being able to feel pain. They are more likely to suffer severe injury or die before adulthood.

•Gate Control Theory- the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in large fibers or by information coming from the brain.

•When it comes to pain, as humans we tend to overlook a pain’s duration instead we focus on the pain’s peak (when it hurt the most) and how the pain felt at the end. •Taste has five sensations- sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami

•Sensory Interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another as when the smell of food influences its taste.

•Embodied Cognition: in psychological science, the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgements. •Breaths come in pairs inhale, exhale except at birth and death.

•People unable to smell experience anosmia

•odorants bind to receptors at the top of the nasal cavity. olfactory receptor cells are activated and send electric signals. The signals are relayed via converged axons. The signals are transmitted to higher regions of the brain. Kenesthesis: your sense of the position and movement of your body parts.

Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. By monitoring your head.
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