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06.03 Calorimetry

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kimberly knechtel

on 27 July 2014

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Transcript of 06.03 Calorimetry

Part 1
Calculations
Part 2
Image by Tom Mooring
Procedure(s)
06.03 Calorimetry
Part I: Determining the Specific Heat of a Known Metal

1.) Place a plastic measuring trough on top of the digital balance, and press the "tare/on" button so that the mass of the trough will be "ignored." The digital balance should read "0.000 g" after this step.
2.) Measure out 25 to 45 grams of one of the four metals on the trough. This may require several "clicks."
3.) Record the mass of the metal in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
4.) Select the trough with the metal to add to the test tube.
5.)Select the distilled water in the beaker and add 25mL to the graduated cylinder.
6.)Record the volume in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
7.)Select the graduated cylinder with the distilled water to add to the calorimeter.
8.)Select the thermometer to place into the calorimeter.
9.)Roll over the thermometer with your cursor to observe the temperature of the distilled water.
10.) Record the temperature of the distilled water in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
11.)Select the thermometer to transfer to the beaker that is being heated.
12.) Roll over the thermometer to observe the temperature of the metal.
13.) Record the temperature in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
14.) Select the clamp holding the test tube to transfer the metal to the calorimeter.
15.) Select the stirring rod to stir the metal and water.
16.) Roll over the thermometer in the calorimeter to observe the temperature.
17.) Record the temperature of the water and the metal (mixture) in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
18.)Copy and paste the results of your metal into a word processing document for Part II of your lab report.

Part II: Determining the Specific Heat of an Unknown Metal

1.) Place a plastic measuring trough on top of the digital balance, and press the "tare/on" button so that the mass of the trough will be "ignored." The digital balance should read "0.000 g" after this step.
2.) Select one of the three unknown metals.
3.) Measure out three to five scoops of the unknown metal.
4.) Record the mass of the unknown metal in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
5.) Select the trough with the metal to add to the test tube.
6.) Select the distilled water in the beaker and add 25mL to the graduated cylinder.
7.) Record the volume in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
8.) Select the graduated cylinder with the distilled water to add to the calorimeter.
9.) Select the thermometer to place into the calorimeter.
10.) Roll over the thermometer with your cursor to observe the temperature of the distilled water.
11.) Record the temperature of the distilled water in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
12.) Select the thermometer to transfer to the beaker that is being heated.
13.) Roll over the thermometer to observe the temperature of the metal.
14.) Record the temperature in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
15.) Select the clamp holding the test tube to transfer the metal to the calorimeter.
16.) Select the stirring rod to stir the metal and water.
17.) Roll over the thermometer in the calorimeter to observe the temperature.
18.) Record the temperature of the water and the metal (mixture) in the "notes" section on the right hand side.
19.) Copy and paste the results of your metal into a word processing document for Part II of your lab report.

Metal
Aluminum
Zinc
Iron
Copper
mass of metal
27.776g
41.664g
34.720g
41.664g
Volume of water in calorimeter
26.0mL
26.0mL
26.0mL
26.0mL
Initial temperature of water in calorimeter
25.3 °C
25.3 °C
25.3 °C
25.3 °C
Temperature of hot water and metal in hot water bath
100.5 °C
100.5 °C
100.5 °C
100.5 °C
Final temperature reached in the calorimeter
31.6 °C
34.8 °C
33.1 °C
34.5 °C
Part 2 Observations:
Metal labeled "B" was the heaviest.
Metal labeled "B" had the highest temperature reached.
Part 1: Aluminum
qmetal = 22.776 g * shmetal * (100.5-38.9)
solving for shmetal = specific heat of metal
qwater = 25 mL * 1g/mL * 4.18 * (38.9-25.3)
qmetal=qwater
shmetal = 25*4.18*13.6 / 61.6*22.776 = 1.01 J /(g*C)
Part 2:
1. Mass water = 24.5 mL X 1 g/mL = 24.5 g H2O
Temperature change of water = 27.2 C -25.2 C = 2.0 C

qwater = m c DT = 24.5 g X 4.18 J/gC X 2.0 C = 205 J gained

2. For the metal,
qmetal = -205 J = 15.363 g X c X (27.2 - 100.3 C)
c = 0.183 J/gC
m = mass of water = density x volume = 1 x 26 = 26 grams

ΔT = T(mix) - T(water) = 38.9 - 25.3 = 13.6

q(water) = 26 x 13.6 x 4.18

q(water) = 1478 Joules

2. Using the formula qmetal = m × c × ΔT, calculate the specific heat of the metal. Use the data from your experiment for the metal in your calculation.
q(water) = - q(metal)
q(metal) = - 1478 Joules
q(metal) = m × c × ΔT
m = 27.776 g
ΔT = T(mix) - T(metal)
ΔT = 38.9 - 100.5 = - 61.6
C = q(metal) / m x ΔT
C = -1478 / (-61.6 x 27.776 )
C = 0.864 J / (g × °C)

(|0.864 - 0.900| / 0.900) * 100 = 4.00 %

Conclusion:
1. 19.4%
2. I believe that my unknown metal was magnesium simply because my final value was closest to magnesium's (0.140) and my value calculated was 0.15
4.
Three sources of experimental error could be; the lack to check variables, mistaking the values on the thermometer, and putting more than the needed amount of metal on the scale. Lacking to check variables and mistaking the values on the thermometer may result in false outcome of the lab. Also, Putting more than enough metals makes the scale weigh more than needed, thus messing up the results in the end.
Metal
Metal A
Metal B
Metal C
mass of metal
Volume of water in the calorimeter
Initial temperature of water in calorimeter
Temperature of hot water and metal in hot water bath
Final temperature reached in the calorimeter
15.262 g
25.605 g
20.484 g
24.0 mL
24.0 mL
24.0 mL
25.2 °C
25.3 °C
25.2 °C
100.3 °C
100.3 °C
100.3 °C
27.5 °C
32.2 °C
28.0 °C
Part 1 Observations:
Part 1 Observations:
Copper is the heaviest metal
For the final temperature reached, Zinc was the hottest.
Part 1
Part 2
1)
m = mass of water = density x volume = 1 x 26 = 26 grams

ΔT = T(mix) - T(water) = 38.9 - 25.3 = 13.6

q(water) = 26 x 13.6 x 4.18

q(water) = 1478 J

2.
q(water) = - q(metal)
q(metal) = - 1478 Joules
q(metal) = m × c × ΔT
m = 27.776 g
ΔT = T(mix) - T(metal)
ΔT = 38.9 - 100.5 = - 61.6
C = q(metal) / m x ΔT
C = -1478 / (-61.6 x 27.776 )
C = 0.864 J / (g × °C)

1. Mass water = 24.5 mL X 1 g/mL = 24.5 g H2O
Temperature change of water = 27.2 C -25.2 C = 2.0 C

qwater = m c DT = 24.5 g X 4.18 J/gC X 2.0 C = 205 J gained

2.
qmetal = -205 J = 15.363 g X c X (27.2 - 100.3 C)
c = 0.183 J/gC
Conclusion
1. The percent error is 19.4%.

2. I believe that most probable identity of the unknown metal that I examined was magnesium. My final value was closest to magnesium's (0.140) and my value calculated was 0.15.

4. The 3 sources of experimental error in this Calorimetry Lab could be; the lack of checking variables, misreading the values on the thermometer, and putting more than the needed amount of metal on the scale. Lacking to check variables and mistaking the values on the thermometer may result in false answers/outcomes of the lab. Also, Putting more than needed metal makes the scale weigh more than needed, in the end messing up the results for the finale answer.
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