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Selected response items for assessment

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Kyleigh Buchta

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Selected response items for assessment

The Development and
Use of Selected-Response
Items A selected-response item is an item with a response that can be selected from available alternatives Multiple-choice, true false, and matching items are all a type of selected-response items Another type of question on an assessment could be a constructed-response item which requires a student to create a response. In this presentation we will inform you of the types of selected-response items, each of their strengths and weaknesses, and how you can effectively develop these items Parts of a Multiple Choice Question The Stem The Alternatives The Distracters The part of the item that is either a question or an incomplete statement The possible answers The incorrect answers Multiple choice items are the most popular selected-response items Multiple choice items can be used in a variety of content areas Multiple choice can also assess both simple and complex outcomes The correct answer is simply called the answer The stem can be written as a direct question or as an incomplete sentence 2. The largest river in the United States of America is ____________? Incomplete-sentence format 1. Which river is the largest in the United States of America? Direct-question format Presents problems in the clearest manner A. Mississippi
B. Missouri
C. Ohio
D. Rio Grande An example of this could be... Presents the problem in a concise manner A. Mississippi
B. Missouri
C. Ohio
D. Rio Grande An example of this could be... If you are dying to know it is the Mississippi Another distinction between multiple choice is correct answer and best answer format Both of the examples used to describe direct-question and incomplete-sentence format are both examples of correct answer Correct answer format is when an item has answers that are wrong and there is only one correct answer Best answer format is when there can be more then one correct answer 1. Which variable is generally thought to be the most important when buying a house? A. Cost
B. Builder
C. Design
D. Location All of these are important but any realtor
will tell you location is most important The best answer format often requires the student to make subtle distinctions between alternatives Best answer format results in more demanding items that measure more complex objectives Avoid negatively stated stems Keep alternatives brief and arrange in order Make sure only one alternative is correct or represents the best answer Provide three to five alternations Have the item contain the information to understand the problem Use a printed format that makes the item clear Guidelines for Developing Multiple-choice Items Provide clear directions
Number questions
Use correct grammar
Entire question should fit on one page A bad example of this 1. Absolute zero point A. interval scale
B. nominal scale
C. ordinal scale
D. ratio scale Because the stem isn't fully develop students could misinterpret this question A good example 1. Which scale of measurement incorporates a true or absolute zero point? A. interval scale
B. nominal scale
C. ordinal scale
D. ratio scale Using to few increases the chance of students guessing correctly and using too many take to long to answer A poor example 1. Andrew Jackson _________ A. was born in Virginia
B. did not fight in the American Revolution
C. was the 7th president
D.served three terms as president A better example 1. Who was the 7th President of the United States of America? A. Andrew Jackson
B. James Monroe
C. John Adams
D. Martin Van Buren Limit terms such as except, least, never and not Students might overlook these words and miss a question they actually know 1. Which state does NOT have a coastline on the Gulf of Mexico? A. Alabama
B. Florida
C. Tennessee
D. Texas To minimize confusion with students you need to carefully evaluate the distracters A poor example 1. Which states have a coastline on the Gulf of Mexico? A. Alabama
B. Florida
C. Tennessee
D. Texas With these questions you should arrange them as multiple true-false item which is a series of true false questions. 1. Which of these states have a coastline on the Gulf of Mexico? Circle true or false. Alabama T F
Florida T F
Tennessee T F
Texas T F Use alternatives in a Random manner for the correct answer Have all distracters seem plausible Minimize using "None of the above" and avoid using " All of the above" Make sure no item reveals another item Make sure all alternatives are grammatically correct Avoid cues that give away the answer A cue is something in the stem that provides a clue to the answer, usually involves word association A poor example 1. Which type of validity study examines the ability of test scores to predict a criterion? A. interval study
B. content study
C. factorial study
D. predictive study A good example 1. Which type of validity study involves a substantial time interval between when the test is administrated and when the criterion is measured? A. interval study
B. content study
C. factorial study
D. predictive study Also the alternatives themselves should not contain cues. To avoid this make all alternatives are equal in length and complexity. A good example 1. Ecology is the study of ___________ A. the genetic and molecular basis of organisms
B. organisms and their relationships to the environment
C. how organisms maintain their delicate internal balance
D. how organisms have slowly evolved over the last million years Visual characteristics of the alternatives can also serve as a cue A poor example 1. The correlation between two measures is 0.90. What is the coefficient of determination? A. 0.1
B. 0.3
C. 0.81
D. 0.9 A good example 1. The correlation between two measures is 0.90. What is the coefficient of the determination? A. 0.10
B. 0.30
C. 0.81
D. 0.99 A poor example 1. Which individuals are credited with making the first successful flights in a heavier than air aircraft that was both powered and controlled? A. Octave Chanute
B. Otto Lilienthal
C. Samuel Langley
D. Wilbur and Orville Wright A good example 1. Which individuals are credited with making the first successful flights in a heavier than air aircraft that was both powered and controlled? A. Octave Chanute and Sir George Cayley
B. Otto Lilienthal and Francis Herbert Wenham
C. Samuel Langley and Alphonse Penaud
D. Wilbur and Orville Wright An item shouldn't contain information to help answer the item A correct answer on one item shouldn't answer another item For example don't make all the answers B or D Students may read an alternative and decide it's correct and not read the other alternatives Avoid using the exact wording from the text Give consideration to how many questions are on your tests and quizzes Be flexible with these guidelines Organize tests and quizzes in a logical manner Limit use of always and never in alternatives Avoid amplifying reading level Include enough items to ensure reliability and validity, but keep in mind the amount of time given in a class time to take the test At least one minute for each on the assessment There are exceptions to these guidelines so make sure to review your tests and quizzes before handing them out. Strengths of Multiple-choice Items Multiple-Choice items are flexible and assess a range of objectives Multiple-choice items can be scored objectively Multiple-choice aren't overly subject to guessing Multiple-choice items aren't influenced by response sets Multiple-choice items are a great way of sampling the content Multiple-choice items are easy to improve using the results of item analysis Multiple-choice items provide information about the type of errors that students make Weaknesses of Multiple-Choice Items Multiple-choice items are not easy to write Multiple-choice items can't measure all educational objectives Examples would be writing a poem, a debate, and a laboratory experiment True-False Items True-False Item Correct-incorrect Item Multiple-true false Item True-False Items with correction These items involve a statement or question that the student marks as true or false, agree or disagree, correct or incorrect, yes or no, or fact or opinion 1. T F In recent years, malaria has been eliminated 2. T F The ozone layer protects us from the harmful ultraviolet radiation 1. C I He set the book on the table 2. C I She set on the table 1.Which of the following Apollo astronauts actually landed on the moon? Edwin Aldrin T F
Frank Borman T F
Neil Armstrong T F
Pete Conrad T F
Thomas Pattern T F
Walter Cunningham T F 1. T F ______________ Apollo 5 was the first Apollo mission to conduct an orbit flight test of the Command and Service Module. 2. T F _____________ Apollo 8 was the first Apollo mission to achieve orbit. Guidelines for Developing True-False Items Avoid having more than one idea in a statement A poor example
1. T F The study of biology helps us understand living organisms and predict the weather. Avoid words that might be cues to the answer Make sure all true-false statements are the same length Avoid negative statements Avoid long complex statements Have an equal number of true answers as well as false Avoid the wording from the text Testing experts provide mixed evaluations of true-false items Strengths of True-False Items True- False items can be scored objectively True-false items are efficient Weakness of true-false items True-false items aren't useful for very complex educational objectives True-false items are vulnerable to guessing True-false items are subject to response sets True-false provide very little diagnostic information True-false items may have a negative suggestion effect True-false items are not easy to write Matching Items Matching items contain two columns of words or phrases A column containing words or phrases are premises The other column will contain words available for selection, called responses The premises are numbered and the responses are identified with letters 1. Directions: On the line next to each children's book in Column A print the letter of the animal or insect in column B that is a main character in that book. Each animal or insect in Column B can be used only once Column A Column B
_____ 1. Charlotte's Web A. Bear
_____ 2. Winnie the Pooh B. Chimpanzee
_____ 3. Black Beauty C. Cricket
_____ 4. Tarzan D. Deer
_____ 5. Pinocchio E. Horse
_____ 6. Bambi F. Mouse
G. Pig Guidelines for Developing Matching Items Limit matching items to homogeneous content Indicate clear directions on how to match the premises and the responses Review items for unintentional cues Include more responses than premises Indicate that responses may be used more than once, only once, or not at all Limit the number of items A reasonable limit is ten and generally five - eight are recommended Ensure that the responses are brief and arranged in a logical order Place all items on the same page Strengths of Matching Items Matching items are scored objectively
Matching items are efficient
Matching items are easy to write Weaknesses of Matching Items Matching items have limited use in assessing student learning
Matching items promote memorization
Matching items are likely to have cues that lead to guessing
Very difficult to create homogeneous lists of relevant material Test items can be classified as a selected-response items or as constructed-response items Selected-Response Items
Multiple choice
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