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Ripple Tank Project
Transcript of Ripple Tank Project
bring money Transverse Wave Longitudinal Wave Types of waves Transverse Wave-
Is a wave in which the particles oscillate perpendicular to the waves direction. Definitions Longitudinal Wave-
Is a wave in which particles oscillate parallel to the waves direction. Basic Vocab Pulse- is a wave of relatively short extent Wave- is a motion of disturbance traveling through a medium by which energy is transferred from one particle of the medium to another. Amplitude- is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. Crest- the highest point on a wave. Trough- the lowest point on a wave Frequency- the number of cycles per unit of time Period- the time it takes to complete one complete cycle. Wavelength- the distance between two adjacent similar points on a wave. Crest to Crest or trough to trough. Torsional Wave is a wave motion in which vibrations of the medium are periodically rotated around the direction of the propagation. Rarefaction- is the region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure are lower than normal. Compression- is the region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure are greater than normal. Speed of a Wave There are three different methods to calculate the speed of a wave. Method 1- Speed = Distance/Time Speed = .2m/.4s = .5 m/s Method 2- Speed = Frequency x Wavelength Speed = 13.3s x .04m = .532 m/s Method 3- Video Analysis- For the video analysis two points were placed at a measured distance and the time for a wave to go from point 1 to point 2 was recorded. Then the formula Speed = Distance/Time was used to calculate the speed. Speed = .54m/s Reflection- Waves can be reflected off boundaries. As a pulse approaches a boundary; which is known as an incident pulse, it is reflected from the boundary and the reflected pulse is inverted relative to the incident pulse. When a straight wave reflect off a flat surface at an angle it reflects perpendicular to the object with the same wavelength and frequency. When a straight wave hits a concave barrier it takes shape of the barrier and then reflects convex to the barrier at a center point with the same wavelength and frequency. When a straight wave hits a convex barrier it reflects convex with the same wavelength and frequency. Straight Waves Reflection- Circular waves When a circular wave hits a flat barrier it changes concavity when it reflects from concave to convex with the same wavelength and frequency. When a circular wave hits a flat barrier at an angle it reflects perpendicular and changes concavity from concave to convex with the same wavelength and frequency. When a circular wave hits a concave barrier it takes shape of the barrier and reflects from concave to convex and changes in wavelength and frequency. When a circular wave hits a convex barrier it takes shape of the barrier and reflects convex with the same wavelength and frequency. Incident Wave Reflected wave Barrier Reflected waves Barrier Refraction- is the change in speed of a wave as it enters a different medium. Snell's law N sinO = N sinO 1 1 2 2 The ratio N /N is called the relative index of refraction. The law was first formulated by Willebrod Snell in about 1620. 1 2 As the waves changed from deep water to shallow water, they decreased in speed. Meaning the part of the waves in the shallow water were slower than the part of the waves in deep water. Shallow Water Speed = .41 m/s Deep water speed = .56 m/s Diffraction- is the bending of waves around the corner or edge of an opaque object. Huygens theory claimed that every point to which a wave reaches, it becomes a source of a spherical wave. The entirety of these secondary waves decide the form of the wave at any specific time. He proposed that the secondary waves moved only in the forward direction and could only use this principle to determine the law of reflection and refraction. As the waves went through the opening they changed concavity. The final outcome was that the smaller the opening and wavelength, the more concave the diffracted wave would be. Interference- Everything depends based on whether waves are in phase with respect to each other. If they are in phase they will add to be double the displacement of each wave alone. If they are out of phase they will cancel each other producing no disturbance at all. The final result was that the farther away the two points were and the smaller the wavelength, the more interference there was. Contructive Interference- when the component waves combine to form a resultant wave with an amplitude that is greater than the amplitude of either of the individual component waves. Destructive Interference- when the resultant amplitude is less than the amplitude of the larger component wave. The End Where does bad light end up? In a Prism Doppler Effect- Introduced by Austrian physicist Johann Doppler, the doppler effect is motion-related frequency changes. For example when a car drives towards you, you will hear a higher pitch frequency, and when it drives away from you, you will hear a lower pitch frequency. With the ripple tank, the point source creates short wavelengths in front and large wavelengths behind and has a higher frequency in the front and a lower frequency behind.