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WH: The Islamic World ca. 600-1400 (Ch.8) & Central and Southern Asia (ch.12)

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Georgina Landin

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of WH: The Islamic World ca. 600-1400 (Ch.8) & Central and Southern Asia (ch.12)

The Islamic World ca. 600-1400 (Ch.8)
0r The Muslim World ( Ch. 10)
&
Central and Southern Asia to 1400 (Ch. 11)
or Empires in East Asia ( Ch.12)

The Islamic World
Origins of Islam:
Founder: Muhammad, born in the Arabian Peninsula among traders, farmers, and nomadic pastoralists (raising livestock).
Teachings: Strict monotheism, believers must submit to God's will, Same God as the Christians and Jews.
A few decades after his death, his followers recorded both his revealed teachings -Qur'an- and traditions about his words and actions.

The Islamic World Cont.
Spread of Islam and Government:
The spread of Islam was the most momentous developments in world history
Carried their faith from the Arabian peninsula to Middle East to North Africa, Spain , and southern France, to the borders of China and northern India through jihad
Established caliphate: coordinated rule of all Muslim lands until about 900
2 dynasties= Umayyad (Damascus and Syria) and Abbasid (its capital at Baghdad in Iraq)
Challenges in Muslim lands 900-1400
Provincial governors acquired independent power= the caliphs could not check=centralized authority within the Islamic state disintegrated
After 900=many local dynasties, competing with each other.
Turks played a huge role in the armies, effective rulers
In the mid-thirteen century, the central Muslim lands from Damascus to Afghanistan and Central Asia fell to the Mongols, who ruled the region for about 80 years.
Muslims shared much of their culture
Muhammad insisted that birth was unimportant; religious piety more important
Social hierarchy: Arabs (descended from the original followers of the Prophet)-converts (Copts, Berbers, and Persians)-Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians ("protected people")-slaves.
Slaves= war captives, converted to Islam, some held important positions esp. in the army,
Men vs. Women
Very strict distinctions
Quar'an said that men were to be in charge of women
In time, seclusion and veiling became common practices esp. among the wealthy.
Islamic Advances
Trade was very important= trade generated a sophisticated and cosmopolitan culture in Baghdad and Cordoba.
11th & 12th c.= witnessed enormous intellectual vitality and creativity.
Muslim scholars produced important work in many disciplines, esp. mathematics, medicine, and philosophy
Muslim civilizations were far more advanced then Christian Europe in the Middle Ages
By 1400s, Islam was advanced in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, architecture, and philosophical investigation.
Social Distinctions in Muslim Society
Central and Southern Asia to 1400 (Ch. 11)
or Empires in East Asia ( Ch.12)
Military Advantages:

The nomadic pastoral societies that stretched across Eurasia had the great military advantage of being able to raise horses in large numbers and support themselves from their flocks.
Mastery of the horse and mounted archery= conquer neighbors
Organized based on clans and tribes that selected chiefs for their military talent
5th-12thc., the most successful nomadic groups on the Eurasian grasslands were Turks of one sort or another.
The greatest of the nomadic military leaders= Mongol Chinggis Khan
How the world changed by the Mongols Conquest of Eurasia
Chinggis Khan= 13th c, charismatic leadership, military genius, led victorious armies throughout Eurasia
Initial conquests were very destructive; inhabitants enslaved or killed
The empire was divided into four khanates ruled by different lines of Chiggis's descendants= more stable forms of government
Mongols rewarded loyalty=given important positions
Mongols did not try to change the cultures or religions of the countries they conquered
In Mongolia and China, the Mongol rulers welcomed those learned in religions.
In Central Asia and Persia the Mongol khans converted to Islam and gave it the support earlier rulers there had done
Mongol Conquests and the spread of ideas, religions, inventions, and disease
For a century Mongol leadership and dominance fostered unprecedented East-West trade and contact
Encouraged trade and often moved craftsmen and other specialists from one place to another
More Europeans made their then ever before
Chinese inventions, like printing and the compass was used
Because Europe was behind in 1200, it benefited from the spread of technical and scientific ideas
Diseases also spread; The Black Death in Europe
India's response to its encounters with the Turks, Mongols, and Islam
India was invaded by the Mongols but not conquered
After the fall of the Gupta Empire @480, India was ruled by small kingdoms which allowed regional cultures to flourish
The north and northwest were frequently raided by Turks from Afghanistan or Central Asia
For several centuries Muslim Turks ruled a state in north India called the Delphi Sultanate
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