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Atomic Theory Timeline
Transcript of Atomic Theory Timeline
Timeline By: Mary Graeber Ancient Philosophers 400-1700 1700-1800 1875-1900 1900-1920 1800-1875 1920-Present 530 BCE 400 BCE 450 BCE Scientists/ Philosophers Pythagorus Democritus and Leucippus Hippocrates 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1773 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr ... small Hippocrates was born around 460 BCE in Greece and died in 375 BCE in Thessaly. He is generally known for his advancements in healthcare as a physician. His achievements were spread out throughout his lifetime because he was constantly coming up with new philosophies in the area of medicine, especially in diagnosis and prognosis. He rejected the claim that religion The main achievement he is known for is the Hippocratic Oath that physicians take before they begin practicing medicine. This occured in 400 BCE. Democritus was born in 470 BCE in Greece and died in 360 BCE. He was best known for proposing the first ideas about the atom in 450 BCE, which would be later expanded upon. Leucippus' birth and death years are unknown, but he lived in the fifth century BCE in Greece. Together, Democritus and Leucippus developed doctrine that stated that the natural aspects of the world are made up of atoms and void and that growth the result of atoms attaching to each other and that matter simply rearranges to form something, rather than previous hypotheses stating that things merely came from nothing. Galileo was born on February 15th, 1564 in Italy and died on January 8, 1642. in 1609, he mirrored the new advances in telescope making, and developed an even better version. He was able to draw the moon's phases, see the moons of Jupiter, and identify the constellations we know today. He saw Saturn's rings and the different phases that Venus goes through. He agreed with Copernicus that the planets revolved around the Sun. Pythagorus lived from 570 to 490 BCE. He was born on an island off the coast of Turkey, but later moved to Italy. He is mainly known for creating the Pythagorean Theorum in 530 BCE. This theorum has to do with the sides and hypotenuse of right triangles. He created a huge basis on which geometry was built . In addition, throughout his lifetime he studied cosmology. World Events Greco-Persian Wars begin with the Battle of Marathon 490 BCE Peloponnesian Wars begin between Sparta and Athens. 430 BCE Sparta wins the Peloponnesian Wars and the Golden Age of Athens ends 404 BCE Scientists 1766 Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish was born on October 10th, 1731 in France and died on February 24th, 1810. In 1766, he discovered Hydrogen, the first element. He was the first to study its properties as well. He documented that is was lighter than other gases and that when mixed with common air, water was created. August 1st, 1774 Joseph Priestley Joseph Priestley was born March 13th, 1733 in Yorkshire and died February 6th, 1804. His most notable discovery was that of oxygen in 1774. He heated mercuric oxide and found that a candle could burn and a mouse could live in this created environment. Though the experiments of other scientists, such as Henry Cavendish, had included oxygen, Priestley was the first to recognize it. Luigi Galvani Luigi Galvani was born September 9, 1737 in Italy and died December 4, 1798. In 1786, he mistakenly discovered the concept of animal electricity. It happened when a scalpel left next to an electric machine accidentally touched the leg of a frog in his lab. The frog's leg muscles immediately started convulsing. Ultimately, he discovered nerve impulse. 1786 World Events Boston Tea Party 1795 Russia, Austria and Prussia participate in the Third Partition of Poland. France invades the Austrian Netherlands. 1744 John Dalton was born on September 6th, 1766 in England and died July 27th 1844. He was known for his immense studies about meteorology in the late 1700s and also his publication on color blindness, but he is best known for his studies on the Atomic Theory. He concluded that all matter is made of small and inseparable atoms. He was one of the first people to develop an atomic model. His first publication of these theories was in 1803. 1803 John Dalton André-Marie Ampère 1820 André-Marie Ampère was born January 22nd, 1775 in France and died June 10, 1836. After seeing a presentation, he wanted to better understand the relationship between electricity and magnetism. In 1820, he came up with the new branch of science, electromagnetism, the science of charge and the forces and fields associated with it. He also recognized the electrodynamic molecule, which was an early form of the electron. Scientists Amedeo Avogadro Amedio Avogadro was born on August 9, 1776 in Italy and died on July 9, 1856. In 1811, he first proposed his theory that states "under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules." He used hydrogen as the standard that he'd compare other elements to. Avogadro's Law is still widely used by chemists and physicists. 1811 1812 Congress declares war against Britain on June 18, 1812. 1802 The British sign the Treaty of Amiens ending their war against France. 1809 Congress passes a law that bans slave import to the United States. World Events Henri Becquerel was born on December 15th, 1852 in Paris and died on August 25th, 1908. He discovered radioactivity in 1896 while using uranium salts. He left a rock and plate in his desk drawer and when he took it out, he noticed a pattern. He accredited this pattern to a penetrating ray, which he later called radioactivity. His discovery was completely by accident. For his work, he won a Nobel Prize in 1903 with his student, Marie Curie. Henri Becquerel 1896 Marie Curie was a nuclear chemist born on November 7th, 1867 in Poland and died on July 4th, 1934 from Leukemia. She based her studied on those of Henri Becquerel in the area of Uranium radiation. She discovered that radiation had a direct relationship with the amount of Uranium a compound contained. Her most notable discoveries were those of polonium and radium in 1898 with her husband Pierre. Marie Curie 1898 JJ Thomson was born on December 18th, 1856 in England and died on August 30th, 1940. He discovered the electron in 1897 by using cathode rays. He noticed and measured the mass and called the rays electrons. Originally, he called them corpsucles. His atomic model had a sphere of positive material with some electrons stuck on it. For his Plum Pudding Model, he won a Nobel Prize in 1906. JJ Thomson 1897 Eugen Goldstein was born on September 5th, 1850 in Poland and died December 25th, 1930. He was the first to recognize protons, a part of the nucleus of the atom. Using a tube filled with hydrogen, he created canal rays, and therefore discovered protons, which had a charge opposite that of the electronand a total mass of one atomic mass unit. This substantial discovery occurred in 1885. With his discovery, many additional atomic discoveries were made possible. 1885 Eugen Goldstein Scientists 1883 German physician Robert Koch discovers the rod-shaped bacterium that causes tuberculosis. 1888 Slavery officially ends in Brazil. Brazil overthrows its monarchy and becomes a republic. 1898 The United States acquires all of Spain's colonies, including the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico. Robert Millikan was born on March 22nd, 1868 in Illinois in the United States. He died on Decemeber 19th, 1953. In 1909, he discovered the charge and mass of the electron by using drops of charged oil in an electrically charged field. He said that the charges of those drops were all multiples of the same base number: the electron's charge. He got the Nobel prize for this discovery in 1932. Robert Millikan 1909 Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30th, 1871 in New Zealand and died on October 19th, 1937. Rutherford was a main figure in the studies of radioactivity and nuclear physics. In 1911, he discovered the three types of radioactivity, alpha, beta, and gamma. From this, he created a new atomic model in which most of the atom was empty space with a really small positive nucleus in the center and surrounding electrons. 1911 Ernest Rutherford Neils Bohr was born on October 7, 1885 in Denmark and died November 18, 1962. He is most famous for first proposing the idea of quantum physics in 1912. He got a Nobel Prize for his works in Physics. He proposed that electrons could only occupy specific orbits and radiation occurred when the electrons moved to lower energy levels. He worked with Ernest Rutherford as well. Neils Bohr 1912 1903 The Wright brothers make their first engine powered air flight. 1908 Henry Ford produces his Model T automobile. The first ship powered by diesel is launched. 1911 Scientists World Events James Chadwick was born on October 20th, 1891 in Manchester, England, and died on July 24th, 1974. He discovered the neutrally charged neutron in 1932 and concluded that the nucleus was made up of protons and neutrons in addition to the surrounding electron filled energy levels His discoveries led other scientists to many new advances.
Werner Heisenburg was born on December 5th, 1901 in Germany and died on February 1st, 1976. He was best known for his formulation of the uncertainty principle in 1927. This states that one can’t correctly measure the position and momentum of something simultaneously and that the less we know about either the momentum or position, the less we know about the other factor. Erwin Schrodinger was born on August 12th, 1887 in Austria and died from tuberculosis on January 4th, 1961. In 1935, he introduced his theory of quantum physics as a paradox about a cat in a box with deadly material. It stated that it couldn’t be known whether the cat was dead or alive until observed. However, his most notable discovery was the wave equation he came up with in 1926 that is still widely used today. 1927 Werner Heisenburg 1932 James Chadwick 1926 Erwin Schrodinger British parliament makes Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland and Ireland independant. 1931 The first non-stop solo transatlantic flight is made by Charles Lindenburg from the U.S. to France 1927 Amelia Earhart flies from Honolulu to Oakland, California, in 17 hours and 7 minutes. 1935 World Events Scientists World Events Paracelsus Paracelsus was born in 1493 in Switzerland and died Sept. 24, 1541. He wrote about syphilis, a miners' disease. He said it could be treated by administering little doses of mercury. His discoveries overcame the previous belief that the disease was punishment for sinning. His developments reflect the modern day practice of homeopathy. 1530 Galileo 1609 Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in Poland and he died May 24, 1543. In 1508, he began a long study on the solar system. He proposed that the planets have the Sun as what they revolve around and that the whole system is sun centered. He hypothesized that if the Earth revolved around the stationary Sun, then the rest of the planets must also do the same. He said that Earth rotates one a day as well.
1508 Copernicus 1492 Christopher Columbus sets sail. 1520 Sweden gains their independence. Scientists World Events 1593 In Italy, Galileo develops the first thermometer.
This is the small, spherical, solid, indivisible model of the atom created by Democritus and Leucippus in 450 BCE. The atomic model pictured above is Rutherford's model which was created in 1911 through a gold foil experiment. He proposed that the electrons orbit a positively charged nucleus. This is the electron cloud model of the atom created in 1920 by Erwin Schrodinger. The ideas of many other scientists contributed to the formulation of this theory. A few years after this concept was created, Werner Heisenburg's uncertainty principle helped to explain why electrons could not be precisely documented, therefore forming a cloud. The Plum Pudding model was created by JJ Thomson in 1906. It stated that there were far fewer electrons in the atom than previously stated, and there must be some sort of positive charge to balance it out, so that was what made up the sphere. In 1915, Neils Bohr adopted many of Rutherford's concepts and also added his own to create his planetary model of the atom. His hypothesis stated that the electron orbits could only exist at certain distances from the nucleus.