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Copy of HSCI 120 Sleep (Chapter 4)

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Christy Scroggins

on 12 June 2015

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Transcript of Copy of HSCI 120 Sleep (Chapter 4)

Daytime side effects include decreased memory and intellectual functioning
Using Sleep Aids
Multiple Sleep Latency Test:
administered as an index of daytime sleepiness, usually repeated five times during the day
Evaluating Your Sleep
Episodes typically last less than 10 minutes
Sleepwalking Disorder
Obstructive sleep apnea:
upper airway obstructed during sleep
Sleep Apnea
of adults report experiencing insomnia at least a few nights a week
As people get older, high-quality, deep sleep becomes more elusive
Sleep Cycles
Stage 1:
relaxed, half-awake sleep
The Structure of Sleep
Circadian rhythms are maintained by the
suprachiasmic nuclei
(SCN) in the brain
What Makes You Sleep?
Sleep deprivation
is the lack of sufficient time asleep, a condition that impairs physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning
Sleep Deprivation
Short sleep:
less than 7 hours
Increases risk of negative health outcomes
How long should we sleep?
Sleep is strongly associated with overall health and quality of life
Health Effects of Sleep
State of unconsciousness or partial consciousness from which a person can be roused by stimulation.
Chapter 4:
Using Sleep Aids
Activities within One Hour
of Bedtime
Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol
Establishing Good
Sleep Habits
The person has no memory of the episode in the morning, and does not experience indigestion or feelings of fullness
Nocturnal Eating Disorder
Insufficient REM sleep may impair memory and the ability to learn new skills
REM Sleep
Cardiovascular disease
Health Effects of losing Sleep
Circadian rhythm:
daily 24-hour cycle of waking and sleeping
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
One Night’s Sleep Cycles
Brain Structures Involved in Sleep and Waking
a period of rest & recovery from the demands of wakefulness
Sleeping in on the weekends does
fully recapture lost sleep
A typical college student sleeps only
6–7 hours
a night on weekdays
Most adults need about
8 hours
of sleep each night
A lack of sleep can lead to a breakdown in the body’s health-promoting processes
Natural immune system moderators increase during sleep and promote resistance to viral infections
Restoration & growth take place during the deepest stages of sleep
Sleep deprivation and disorders are associated with serious physical & mental health conditions, including:
Overweight and obesity
Mental health disorders
Respiratory disorders
Immunological disorders
Endocrine disorders
Metabolic disorders
Long sleep:
10 hours or more
Sufficient quantity and quality of sleep is as vital as good nutrition and exercise
Sleep debt
is the difference between the amount of sleep attained and the amount of sleep needed to maintain alert wakefulness during the daytime
is a hormone that increases relaxation & sleepiness
SCN also signal the pineal gland to release
and signal the pituitary gland to release growth hormone during sleep
Serve as an internal “biological clock” that controls body temperature and levels of alertness and activity
The brain cycles into two main states of sleep:
Rapid eye movement (REM)
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
Stages of NREM sleep
Blood supply to brain minimized
Heart rate slows
Blood pressure drops
Stages 3 and 4
: deep sleep
Stage 2:
brain activity slows and movement stops
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
Dream stage:
noticeable eye movements
Appears to give the brain the opportunity to file ideas and thoughts into memory
Scientists believe that creativity and novel ideas are more likely to flourish during REM
Some experts believe sleep problems are caused by lifestyle choices
Children and adolescents experience large quantities of “deep sleep”
Going to bed too early
Daytime naps
Decreased mental stimulation and exercise
Changes in diet
Distress over inability to fall asleep also contributes
Can be caused by stress, anxiety, medical problems, poor sleep environment, noisy or restless partners, schedule changes, etc.
Difficulty falling or staying asleep
Periods of nonbreathing during sleep
of U.S. population may have some form of sleep apnea (
Central sleep apnea:
brain fails to regulate diaphragm and other breathing mechanisms correctly (rare)
Disorder in which a person rises out of an apparently deep sleep and acts as if awake
May be brought on by excessive sleep deprivation, fatigue, stress, illness, excessive alcohol, use of sedatives
Most sufferers have no family history of the disorder
of population
disorder in which a person rises from bed during the night and eats and drinks while asleep
are female
Night eating syndrome:
person eats excessively during the night while awake
Repeatedly awakens during the night to eat, then eats very little during the day
Take the sleep latency test
Sleep latency:
amount of time it takes a person to fall asleep
Check for symptoms of a sleep disorder
Look at behavior change strategies
If referred to a sleep clinic or lab, you may be asked to monitor your sleeping habits at home, or you may be evaluated at the lab
Consider your bed partner
Get rid of dust mites and other bedroom pests
Be smart about napping
Remember air quality and humidity
Manage stress and establish relaxing bedtime rituals
Maintain a regular sleep schedule
Create a sleep-friendly environment
Take a break from technology
Avoid eating too close to bedtime
15% of adults
use a prescription or over-the-counter sleep aid a few nights a week
Can cause dehydration, agitation, constipation
Frequently-prescribed sleep medications induce sleep but suppress both deep sleep and REM sleep
OTC products contain antihistamine
Worse than before medication taken
Rebound insomnia can occur
Complementary and alternative products and approaches include:
Herbal products
Important to consult with your physician
Can interact with other medication and drugs
Dietary supplements
No scientific evidence
of life
What is sleep?
Types of sleep
Sleep & health
Sleeping better...
For Next Class...
Read chapters 9 & 10
Alcohol & Tobacco
Drugs & Addictive Behavior
more lectures before M2
Try reading or stretching before bed
Sleep and Health
Sleep Paralysis
Nightmares vs. Night Terrors
Full transcript