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Social Thinking-Attributing Behavior & Attitudes and Actions
Transcript of Social Thinking-Attributing Behavior & Attitudes and Actions
Eddie Villaseñor-Emily Walsh The Milgram Experiment Actions Affect Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Role Playing Affects Attitudes role: a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in that position ought to behave The Fundamental Attribution Error Attitudes Affect Action Milgram developed an intimidating shock generator,
-Shock levels starting at 30 volts & increasing in 15-volt increments to 450 volts Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon- the tendency for people who have first agreed to do small request to comply later with a larger request Cognitive Dissonance Theory: the theory that we act to reduce the dissonance (discomfort) we feel when two of our cognitions (thoughts) are inconsistent. Social Thinking- Attributing Behavior & Attitudes and Actions situational attribution
-maybe they are upset and had a bad day so smiling and waving back wasn't the first thing on their mind
-maybe they didn't see you because the sun was in their eyes
-they recognized you too late and you had already passed each other Fundamental Attribution Error-
the tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Switches labeled
-"danger: severe shock"
-"XXX" dispositional attribution
-wow. your friend is being a jerk. waaaay to blow you off like that. how rude.
-your friend genuinely doesn't like you. consider changing friends
-you probably did something to make them mad? Each participant took the role of a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the "student" every time an incorrect answer was produced. While the participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the student, the student was actually a confederate in the experiment who was simply pretending to be shocked. 40 participants in the study
26 delivered the maximum shocks
14 stopped before reaching the highest levels. THE ACTOR-OBSERVER DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION In an interview, Devlin said "Most people would say their greatest fear is dying, but that's not mine. I would have to say my greatest fear is probably not being understood." 65% of the participants
deliver Maximum Shock 84% were glad to have participated, while only 1% regretted their involvement. The handout example:
Shows that we tend to attribute someone else's behavior to their personality, while our own behavior is attributed to the environment. Richard Nisbett:
"when explaining our own behavior, we are sensitive to how behavior changes with the situation." if we believe someone is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act differently attitude: feelings often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to to respond in a particular way Persuasion
we are persuaded though two different ways:
1. Peripheral route persuasion
2. Central route persuasion peripheral route persuasion: influenced by incidental cues- the speakers attractiveness (making snap judgements) central route persuasion: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Not only will people stand up for what they believe, they also will believe more strongly in what they have stood up for. Doing becomes believing Korean War U.S. prisoners of war were held in camps by Chinese communist. without using brutality, captors secured the prisoners collaboration by having them run errands, accepted favors, radio appeals, false confessions some even divulged military info - when the war ended 21 prisoners wanted to stay convinced that communism was a good thing for Asia ie: soldiers at the start of a war feel like they are playing a game; Newlyweds feel like they are playing house so ... Role playing morphed into real life in one famous study- Stanford Prison Simulation (Zimbardo) ie: when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes Cohesive Example:
greek soldiers were eased into their roles of torture- first the trainee stood guard outside and interrogation room (Foot-in-the-Door) Then the next time he would be asked to step inside the door and only when he was ready did he actively participate in the questioning and torture
** important note- not everyone may change their attitudes to this, some may continue to stick to their original beliefs. Milgram’s experiment has become a classic in psychology, demonstrating the dangers of obedience. While this experiment suggests that situational variables have a stronger sway than personality factors in determining obedience, other psychologists argue that obedience is heavily influenced by both external and internal factors, such as personal beliefs and overall temperament. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlllu7_stranley-milgram-obedience_school#.UO7a_bv_RUM What is Social Psychology? Milgram Video (9:23 22:10) Social Psychology- the study of social influences that might explain why the same person will act differently in different situations Fake it 'til you make it