**and his 3 Laws of Motion**

**ISAAC NEWTON**

Isaac Newton is perhaps the greatest physicist who has ever lived. He shares this title with Albert Einstein.

Each of these great scientists worked hard to bring astounding and amazing transformations in the world of science specifically physics by introducing the Universal Laws of Physics, and made the world more understandable around us.

Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 in the tiny village of Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England. His father, a farmer, died before Isaac was born so Isaac Newton started living with his grandmother.

Early Life and Education

At the age of 22 he was awarded his B.A. degree. By now Newton’s mind was ablaze with new ideas. He began making significant progress in three distinct fields in which he would make some of his most insightful discoveries:

The Age of Discoveries

During his work, he came up with the three basic ideas of motion. The ideas have been tested and verified so many times over the years, that scientists now call them Newton's Three Laws of Motion.

The 3 Laws of Motion

The First Law

The Second Law

The Third Law

Short Video

Newton attended The King’s School, where he was taught the standard subjects, but no science or mathematics. At the age of 17, his mother stopped his schooling so that he could become a farmer. Newton was not interested in farming so he was allowed to return to school, where he finished as a top student.

At 18 years of age, Newton started a law degree at Cambridge university’s Trinity College, earning money working as a personal servant to wealthier students but by the time he was a third-year student he was spending a lot of his time studying mathematics and physics. He was also very interested in alchemy.

His physics lecturers based their courses on Aristotle’s incorrect ideas from Ancient Greece.

Newton began to disdain the material taught at his college, preferring to study the recent (and more scientifically correct) works of Galileo, Boyle, Descartes, and Kepler. He wrote:

“Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth.”

Reading the works of these great scientists, Newton grew more determined about making discoveries himself. While still working part-time as a servant, he wrote a note to himself. In it he posed questions which had not yet been answered by science. These included questions about gravity, the nature of light, the nature of color and vision, and atoms.

• Calculus, the mathematics of change

• Gravity

• Optics and the behavior of light

Isaac Newton

At the age of 24 he was elected as a fellow of Trinity College. 2 years after that, Newton was appointed as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics and he was just 26 years old!

Isaac Newtons Achievements

Generalized the binomial theorem

Showed that sunlight is made up of all of the colors of the rainbow. He used one glass prism to split a beam of sunlight into its separate colors, then another prism to recombine the rainbow colors to make a beam of white light again.

Built the world’s first working reflecting telescope.

Discovered/invented calculus, the mathematics of change, without which we could not understand the behavior of objects as tiny as electrons or as large as galaxies.

Discovered the law of universal gravitation, proving that the force holding the moon in orbit around the earth is the same force that causes an apple to fall from a tree

Proved that all objects moving through space under the influence of gravity must follow a path

Formulated his three laws of motion – Newton’s Laws – which lie at the heart of the science of movement

OF

The first law says that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, with the same speed. Motion (or lack of motion) cannot change without an unbalanced force acting upon it. Every object persists to stay in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces.

Examples of external forces are gravity, friction, push and pull, air, magnetic field etc.

The second law shows that if you apply the same force on two objects of different mass, you will get different accelerations (changes in motion). The effect (acceleration) on the smaller mass will be greater than the effect on a larger mass. E.g. The effect of a 10 Newton force on a baseball would be much greater than that of the same force acting on a chair . The difference in effect (acceleration) is entirely due to the difference in their masses.

The third law says that for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces are found in pairs. It's an issue of symmetry. For example, shooting a cannonball. When the cannonball is fired through the air (by the explosion), the cannon is pushed backward. The force pushing the ball out was equal to the force pushing the cannon back, but the effect on the cannon is less noticeable because it has a much larger mass. That example is similar to the kick when a gun fires a bullet forward.

In 1705, he was knighted, becoming Sir Isaac Newton.

Sir Isaac Newton died on March 31, 1727, aged 84. He had never married and had no children.

Professor of Mathematics

Isaac Newton, who was largely self-taught in mathematics and physics:

Force = mass x acceleration

Isaac Newton

Interesting Facts!

Newton revealed his laws of motion and gravitation in his book the Principia. Just as few people at first could understand Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, few people understood the Principia when it was published. When Newton walked past them one day, one student remarked to another:

“There goes a man who has written a book that neither he nor anybody else understands.”