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American History-The Civil War
Transcript of American History-The Civil War
American History-The Civil War
The Civil War Era changed the course of American History
Pick one person from the Northern States and one person from the Southern States and describe their impact on American History during the Civil War.
CIVIL WAR BEGINS!
Battle of Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter was located on an island off the coast of Charleston SC
The north felt the fort belonged to the United States (Union)
The south felt it belonged to the newly formed Confederacy
Major Robert Anderson was the Union commander at Sumter
6000 Southern militia surrounded the fort cutting off supplies and aid to Anderson and his men for weeks
Lincoln did not want to use aggressive tactics and push additional Southern states to secede, instead he planned to send in a ship with only supplies, no weapons
Davis ordered Anderson to surrender and when he refused he opened fire on Fort Sumter firing 3000 shells over 3 1/2 days
Finally Anderson surrender Fort Sumter to the Confederacy
Fort Sumter marks the first shots fired of the Civil War
civil war- a war between two groups of people from the same nation
Jefferson Davis is chosen as the president of the Confederate States
Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as president of the United States
Battle of Bull Run
first land battle of the Civil War
near Manassas Junction, VA
Union troops led by General McDowell march from Washington DC attempting to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
General Beauregard called for Confederate reinforcements, additional troops arrived near the river of Bull Run
Civilians had picnicked nearby to watch the battle
Confederate reinforcements broke the Union lines scattering troops into the civilian crowd
Causalities-3000 Union/2000 Confederate
The North realized that their victory would not be as quick and easy as they thought
The South was given increased confidence
blockade-a military strategy that aims to cut off supplies going in and out of an area
Merrimack vs Monitor
In Hampton Roads near the coast of Norfolk, VA
Confederate ironclad Virginia (originally named the Merrimack) steamed in and sank Cumberland and ran Congress aground
Union ironclad Monitor arrived to do battle, initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history
The two ships fought each other to a standstill
Battle of Antietam
Near Sharpsburg, MD at Antietam Creek
First battle fought on Union soil
General Lee advanced into MD
a Union soldier found a copy of Lee's battle plan and usually cautious McClellan moved his troops engaging the Confederate Army
Stonewall Jackson arrived later to aid Lee but the southern troops were pushed back across the Potomac R.
McClellan failed to purse Lee across the river resulting in Lincoln eventually removing him from his position
Bloodiest day in American History
Neither side won, however the North used it as a reason to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Fredericksburg
Near Rappahannock River in Fredricksburg, VA
Newly appointed Union commander General Burnside led troops
Pontoon bridges that were needed to cross the Rappahonnock River did not arrive in time
The delay allowed the Confederate army time to get into position and defend the area
Stonewall Jackson arrived to push back the one Union troop that did break Confederate lines
Causalities-13000 Union/5000 Confederate
Huge defeat for the North
Restored moral for the South
Emancipation Proclamation is the document signed by Lincoln changing the Unions war aims to include fighting to free enslaved African Americans in the Confederate States
Gettysburg Address was a speech given by President Lincoln at Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to honor those who died at the Battle of Gettyburg. It is the most famous speech ever given by President Lincoln
In Gettysburg , PA
The deadliest battle of the Civil War
The only major battle fought north of the Mason-Dixon Line
Union forces commanded by General George Meade faced Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee, in a three-day battle with over 160,000 total soldiers
Day1- Meade's forces under Commander John Buford held the site until Union reinforcements arrived. Remaining troops on both sides arrived overnight.
Day 2-Confederates attacked Union lines located at Little Round Top, Cemetery Hill, Devil's Den, the Wheatfield, and the Peach Orchard.
Day 3-Lee sent 12,000 troops to attack Cemetery Ridge. Confederate troops did manage to break through the lines, but a Union counterattack forced the Confederate troops to withdraw.
The result of the battle was a crushing blow to Confederate forces who were hoping to assert themselves in the North.
Considered the turning point of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
Causalities-23000 Union/28000 Confederate
Crushing defeat for the South
Turned the tides of winning the war in favor of the North
Lee Surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse
General Lee’s army was surrounded at Appomattox by Grant’s forces
With his army surrounded, his men weak and exhausted, Robert E. Lee realized there was little choice but to consider the surrender of his Army to General Grant
After a series of notes between the two leaders, they agreed to meet on April 9, 1865, at the house of Wilmer McLean in the village of Appomattox Courthouse
The meeting lasted approximately two and a half hours and at its conclusion the bloodiest conflict in the nation's history neared its end
Lee formally surrenders the Confederacy on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
The Civil War is over
surrender-when soldiers stop fighting in an attempt to end a military war or conflict, often including written terms of agreement; often symbolized with a white flag
United States Military Academy at West Point, NY-a training ground for many officers on both sides during the Civil War
draft-a system of selecting individuals from a group for compulsory military service
strategy-an overall military plan for defeating an enemy or winning a conflict
tactic-method of using forces in combat
Mary Todd Lincoln was the wife and first lady of the 16th president of the United States. She was know as a first lady who experienced many tragedies. 3 of her 4 sons passed away before age 18, she also witnessed her husband's assassination at Ford's Theater.
Their home of about 17 years still stands at Eighth and Jackson Streets in Springfield.
Two days later, in the wake of Confederate troops attack at Fort Sumter, forcing its surrender. Lincoln put out a call for 75,000 volunteers
Ulysses S. Grant
Nicknamed Unconditional Surrender Grant
Leader of the Union forces during the Civil War
Was a colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry
He was promoted to major general, after victories at Vicksburg, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge
In March 1864, he was made the commander of all Union forces
He accepted Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Virginia on April 9, 1865
After the war, he served as Secretary of War (1867-68).
Robert E. Lee
leader of the Confederate forces during the Civil War
Led the attack to stop John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry
Was Lincoln's first choice to lead the Union army
Was opposed to both slavery and seccession
Refused to fight against his fellow soldiers in Virginia and only began leading the Confederate army when Virginia finally left the Union
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson was a Confederate hero and general during the Civil War
He was the corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee
Confederate soldiers accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863
The general survived with the loss of an arm to amputation, but died of complications from pneumonia eight days later.
“There stands Jackson like a stone wall”………
Clarissa "Clara" Barton was a pioneer nurse on the Union side who founded the American Red Cross
She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles
In addition to being a nurse, she worked as a teacher, patent clerk, and humanitarian.
Sally Tompkins was a humanitarian, nurse, and philanthropist
Many believe that she was also the only woman officially commissioned in the Confederate Army
She is best-remembered for privately sponsoring a hospital in Richmond, Virginia to treat soldiers wounded in the American Civil War
Under her supervision she had the lowest death rate of any hospital Union or Confederate, during the Civil War
Remembered as the "Angel of the Confederacy"
Women of the Civil War
Savannah Campaign in the American Civil War
From November 15 to December 21, 1864
By Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
Began with troops l capturing the city of Atlanta, Georgia, on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21
His forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property and disrupted the South's economy and its transportation networks
Sherman's March to the Sea
Why is the Battle of Gettysburg so important?
It turned the tides in favor of the Union
It sent an already weakening Confederacy home devastated and demolished
The number of casualties was epic
It gave new purpose for why the Union was fighting in the war
The 3rd day also included the famous charge by General George Pickett
General Winfield Scott