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The Philippines of Rizal's Time (19th Century)

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Jeanelle Calosa

on 22 June 2015

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Transcript of The Philippines of Rizal's Time (19th Century)

The Philippines of Rizal's Time (19th Century)
Instability of Colonial Administration
The instability of Spanish politics since the turbulent reign of King Ferdinand VII (1808-1833) marked the beginning of political chaos in Spain.
Human Rights Denied to Filipinos
No Equality Before The Law
Spaniards arrogantly regarded the brown skinned Filipinos as inferior beings.

Spanish Penal Code, which was enforced in the Philippines, particularly imposed heavier penalties on Native Filipinos or mestizos and lighter penalties on white-complexioned Spaniards.

Maladministration of Justice
The courts of justice in the Philippines during Rizal’s time were notoriously corrupt.

Justice was costly, partial and slow.

Wealth, social prestige and color of skin were preponderant factors in winning a case in court.

The judicial procedure was so slow and clumsy that it was easy to have justice delayed.

Racial Discrimination
Filipinos as inferior beings who were infinitely undeserving of the rights and privileges that the white Spaniards enjoyed.

Spaniards called the brown-skinned and flat-nosed Filipinos “Indios” (Indians), in retaliation, the Filipinos dubbed their pale-complexioned detractors with the disparaging term “bangus” (milkfish).

The friars (Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans) controlled the religious and educational life of the Philippines, and later in the 19th century they came to acquire tremendous political power, influence and riches.

Almost every town in the archipelago, except in Islamic Mindanao and Sulu and in Pagan hinterlands, was ruled by a friar curate.

Haciendas Owned by the Friars
During Rizal’s times the Spanish friars belonging to different religious orders were the richest landlords, for they owned the best haciendas (agricultural lands) in the Philippines.
The Filipinos in this time were unfortunate victims of the evils of an unjust, biased and deteriorating power.
These are: 1. Instability of colonial administration
2. Corrupt Colonial Officials
3. No Philippine Representation in Spanish Cortes
4. Human Rights Denied to Filipinos
5. No Equality Before the Law
6. Maladministration of Justice
7. Racial Discrimination
8. Frailocracy
9. Forced Labor
10. Haciendas Owned by the Friars
11. The Guardia Civil
Corrupt Colonial Officials
They were either highly corrupt, incompetent, cruel or venal.
Philippine Representation in Spanish Cortes

Guardia Civil
Had rendered meritorious services in suppressing the bandits in the provinces, they later became infamous for their rampant abuses, such as maltreating innocent people, looting their carabaos, chickens and valuable belongings and raping women.

Rizal himself witnessed the discrimination of how the guardia civil (either Filipino or insulares) treated the Filipinos.

This political instability in Spain adversely affected Philippine affairs because it brought about frequent periodic shifts in colonial policies and periodic rigodon of colonial officials.
1835 to 1897: 50 Governor-Generals each serving an average term of only one year and three months.
Ferdinand VII
Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo (1871-1873)
> a boastful and ruthless governor general who ordered the execution of Father Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora.
Admiral Jose Malcampo (1874-77)

> was a good Moro fighter, but was an inept and weak administrator
General Fernando Primo de Rivera (1880-83 and 1897-98)
> Governor General for two terms enriched himself by accepting bribes from gambling casinos in Manila which he scandalously permitted to operate.

General Valeriano Weyler (1888-91)

> A cruel and corrupt governor general of Hispanic-German ancestry, arrived in Manila a poor man and returned to Spain millionaire.

General Camilo de Polavieja (1896-97)
> An able militarist but heartless governor general, was widely detested by the Filipino people for executing Dr. Rizal.

To win the support of her overseas colonies during the Napoleonic invasion, Spain granted them representation in the Cortes (Spanish parliament).

Accordingly, the Philippines experienced her first period of representation in the Cortes from 1810 to 1813.

Ventura de los Reyes
- The first Philippine delegate who took active part in the framing of the Constitution 1812.
- Another achievement was the abolition of the Galleon Trade.

Since the adoption of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and other constitutions in succeeding years, the people of Spain enjoyed freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of association, and other human rights (except freedom of religion).

The Spanish authorities who cherished these human rights in Spain denied them to the Filipinos in Asia.

Thank you :)
Forced Labor
Known as polo.

Compulsory labor imposed by the Spanish colonial authorities on adult Filipino males in the construction of churches, schools, hospitals, building and repair of roads and bridges, building of ships and other public works.
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