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French Revolution Timeline (1776-1825)
Transcript of French Revolution Timeline (1776-1825)
By: Kyle Fertig
= Citizen Action
= Government Action
= External Conflict
The Moderate Era (1789-1791)
The Radical Era (1792-1794)
The Directory Era (1795-1799)
The Napoleon Era (1799-1815)
France Aids the Colonists in the American Revolution
Louis XVI calls the
The Tennis Court Oath
King Louis XVI fires Finance Minister Jacques Necker
July 11th, 1789
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, 1789
The Declaration of the
Rights of Man
The Church is placed under state control
The National Assembly creates the Constitution of 1791 and creates the Legislative Assembly as their replacement
King Louis XVI and Marie attempt to flee France, but are caught in Varennes
September 30th, 1791
The slaves of St. Domingue begin fighting a revolution to break off from the French Empire.
On July 14th, 1789, the citizens of Paris were in full swing on revolting against King Louis XVI. Before they could rebel, though, they needed gunpowder to go with their many weapons. Knives and guns without ammo would not work, so the citizens looked to the Bastille, a torture jail in Paris where gunpowder and bullets were rumored to be. After the gatekeeper refused to let the citizens in, they stormed the place, took out the small bit of gunpowder found, and tore the tower apart, brick by brick, with their bare hands. Amazingly, only 6 guards died, and out of thousands of citizens, only 98 died. This was a wake-up call to King Louis XVI that the country was in rebellion.
Women attack Versailles and force the king and queen to come to Paris.
October 5th, 1791
The Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria, Prussia, and Britain.
Austrian and Prussian troops invade France.
Marie Antoniette is Executed
King Louis XVI is executed.
The National Convention creates the Committee on Public Safety.
Before the king was defeated, France had a system where select citizens could vote on issues for the country. The problem with this, though, was that only a small portion of the committee was actually from the lower class, which made up the vast majority of the population. In June of 1789, the third estate, representing a lower class, declared themselves to be the National Assembly, separating themselves from the Estate's General. They claimed to represent the people of France. To keep themselves from the king dismissing them, they locked themselves in a tennis court. They then proceeded to take an Oath to, "never...separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and a just constitution." They would later lead the revolution, and become the new leaders of France.
Slavery is Abolished in the French Colonies.
Robespierre is arrested and sent to the guillotine.
July 27th and 28th, 1974
Between the years 1765-1783, a large group of colonists wanted to leave England for a new way of life. They went to “The New World”, and set up the thirteen colonies. They wanted total separation from England, since they were the ones taxing them, so they rebelled against them. They started a large war that would last eight years. For this, they would need help. Spain had reached out and helped out on the American side. The French were the original people, though, to help with the Americans’ revolution.
Robespierre holds the Festival of the Supreme Being.
June 8th, 1794
The Directory is Established.
Napoleon overthrows the Directory and establishes a 3-man Consulate The Great Fear
Napoleon sells the Louisiana Territory to the United States
While Napoleon was in power, he fought in many wars. He had a plan for "world domination," but sadly, he put too much importance in one place. For France, the West Indian Islands were important because they produced sugar, molasses, rum, coffee, and other exports that France relied on to make an income. After the islands were in rebellion, France crept farther and father into debt. Eventually, Napoleon ran out of funds, and he had to make some quick money to re-take the islands and continue pushing back Austria, Prussia, and Britain. His solution was to sell the Louisiana Territory. He opened up bidding, and the United States jokingly sent in an offer of 15 million dollars. To their surprise, France accepted the deal after a night of negotiating, and Napoleon now had some quick cash. To put the price in perspective, the United States got the land at about three cents per acre. Napoleon never took back the islands, though, and eventually, France surrendered to the attacking European countries.
A Monarchy is re-established in France after being defeated by attacking countries.
Napoleon assumes the title Emperor of France.
December 21st, 1804
Napoleon steps down and is exiled from France.
April 11th, 1814
The slaves of St. Domingue have successfully pushed back the French and form the country of Haiti.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born August 15th, 1769, and died May 5th, 1821. That equates to 52 years old, 17 years more than the average life expectancy. He was emperor of France for 10 years, 1804 through 1814. One of the biggest things he’s known for is the Louisiana Purchase, when he sold all of France’s land that was on the American continent to the colonists for about 15 million dollars (3 cents per acre). The reason he had sold it so suddenly sold it was that they didn’t want to get into another war with Britain, and since Britain had control of the sea, and France wouldn’t have a chance. So they cut a steal for the colonists to get some money.
The Reign of Terror
April 5th, 1974
Georges Danton is executed for promoting an end to the Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror has come to an end.
After failing defending from attackers, France reverted back to being a Monarchy. A monarchy is a government ruled by one person born into power. Before it reverted back (and after it was originally a monarchy) it was a republic. That republic was overthrown by Napoleon. Napoleon then had made a 3-man consulate. Then five years later, they’re back to a monarchy, and a couple of months later Napoleon is back to ruling France.
Now that France was free of a monarchy, they had to form a new government. There was a rough set of rules being followed, but nothing that was enforced enough, or took care of loopholes. On August 22nd, 1795, the convention ratified the Constitution of 1795. The government decided on a two-house form. There would be an upper house called the Council of Ancients consisting of 150 members, and there would be a lower house called the Council of Five Hundred consisting of 500 members. The constitution also called for a group of 5 officers, called the Directory, to run the executive branch of the government. This constitution ran up until Napoleon formed the 30man Consulate The Great Fear.
The September Massacres were a large number of criminal killings. This was done in fear that the criminals may have revolt at any moment in time. Over the course of two days, the criminal count was halved. 233 of the 1200-1400 criminals being Catholic priests who simply didn’t believe in the government’s ways. The government was okay with it; in fact, the government had encouraged other cities to do the same thing.
Government Icon - Symbol Clip Art. N.d. Photograph. Clker. Clker. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Fist_WeThePeople. N.d. Photograph. Twitter. Twitter. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
N.d. Photograph. Fastracknetworks. Fastrack Networks. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg. N.d. Photograph. Wikipedia. Wikipedia. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Charlotte Corday Marat.jpg. N.d. Photograph. Fansshare. FansShare. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Louisiana Purchase. N.d. Photograph. Blackpast. BlackPast. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Declaration Independence. N.d. Photograph. WIkipedia. Wikipedia. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
The September Massacres. N.d. Photograph. WIkipedia. WIkipedia. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Robespierre. N.d. Photograph. WIkipedia. Wikipedia. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Nirace. Robespierre-Guillotined. N.d. Photograph. Blogs.bu. BU Blogs, 7 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Marie Antoinette. N.d. Photograph. Wikimedia. Wikipedia. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
"Bastille Daze." FRONTPAGE MAG. FrontPage Magazine, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
"The Directory: 1795-1799." Sparknotes. Sparknotes, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat.