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Interaction of Species

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Kacie Beirnes

on 9 October 2018

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Transcript of Interaction of Species

includes the species’ physical home, the environmental
factors necessary for the species’ survival, and all of the
species’ interactions with other organisms.
The unique role of a species within an ecosystem is its

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
We will talk about two different types of niches:
1. Fundamental
2. Realized
This is the FULL RANGE of environmental conditions available to the organism.
Fundamental Niche
is the potential area and resources an organism is capable of using.
is different from a
. An organism’s habitat is a location. However, a niche is an organism’s pattern of use of its habitat.
A niche can also be thought of as the functional role, or job, of a particular species in an ecosystem.
So, it is the portion of the fundamental niche that is
by the organism
Realized Niche
is the area an organism actually occupies when there is competition present.
Ex: Raccoons naturally live in forests and eat insects and small animals
(fundamental niche)
Ex: Raccoons start to live off our trash and waste
(realized niche)
because of human encroachment on their natural environment
Organisms are always interacting!
We will focus on different types of interaction between species:
1. Competition
2. Predation
3. Parasitism
4. Mutualism
5. Commensalism
Please pick a partner!
With your partner, compare and contrast a fundamental and realized niche. Give examples of each!
Competition: Relationship in which different individuals or populations attempt to use the same limited resources
This can occur within one species or between different species.
This simply means their niches overlap and they are fighting for resources.
The organism feeding is the
and the one getting eaten is the
Predation: Relationship in which an organism feeds on another organism.
Please share as a class a few examples of this.
Examples: Tick, Fleas, Tapeworms
Parasitism: Relationship in which an organism lives in or on (the parasite) another organism (the host).
One organism (predator) benefits, whereas the other organism (prey) is harmed.
This relationship is one sided.
Similar to predation, one organism (parasite) benefits and one is harmed (host).
Examples: The bacteria in your stomach--bacteria helps break down food and it thrives in the stomach environment.
Mutualism: Relationship in which two organisms benefit from their interaction with each other.
The relationship is mutual; both gain something from it!
Examples: A shark and a remora (fish). The remora cleans the shark but doesn't get helped or harmed in the process.
Commensalism: Relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
Interaction of Species
Your assignment:
You need to FIND and RESEARCH a generalist species and a specialist species that is found in TN.
1. What is the name?
2. Where can the species be located (Be specific)?
3. What is the species' niche?
4. You MUST include a picture of both species!
: Thursday August 25th!
Your researched relationships CANNOT be examples found in the textbook or from notes!
Your next assignment:
Please RESEARCH an example of
, and
For each relationship, your research MUST include:
1. The names of both species involved
2. A summary of the behavior (how do they interact?)
3. Explain the roles of each species (which one benefits? harmed? neither?)
What do you think of when you hear this?
Adaptations to Competition
two species
with similar niches are placed together in the
same ecosystem
, we might expect one species to be
more successful
than the other species.
Therefore, species create adaptations to this competition.
There can be two different types of adaptations:
1. Behavioral
2. Structural
Examples: Bird calls or migrating south (for winter)
Behavioral Adaptations:
The behaviors an organism does to survive.
What are some other examples?
Can you think of any examples?
Structural Adaptations:
The changes in physical features of an organism in order to survive.
One example is camouflage.
Camouflage is a physical disguise, making it hard to see.
Another example is mimicry.
Mimicry is when a harmless species mimics (pretends) the appearance of a poisonous species.
Both camouflage and mimicry protect the species from possible death.
You need to be able to recognize interaction between species and the effects it has on population size.
For instance, you should realize that if the predator population increases that the prey population would decrease.
Generalist Species:
One that can survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can use several resources

Specialist Species:
One that can only survive in a narrow range of environmental conditions and has a limited diet
Native species: one that belongs to a specific area or is originally from there
Non-native species: one that doesn't belong to a certain area
Invasive species: one that is non-native to an area AND does harm
Invasive species will out compete the native species for resources; can disrupt ecosystems
There are usually no species that will consume the invasive species
Keystone species: one that plays a
crucial role in an ecosystem
Without the keystone species, the ecosystem
would fall apart
Ex: prairie dog
Indicator species: one that indicates a change in the environment
Native species:
found and thrive in a particular area
Non-native species:
move or brought into an ecosystem by humans on accident or intentional
Invasive species:
A non-native or introduced species that out competes the native species for the resources.
Competitive exclusion:
the principle that when two species compete within an environment, one will win and displace the other.
Resource partitioning:
sharing of resources
Indicator species:
sensitive to environmental changes; They serves as a warning or indicator when there are changes to the living conditions in a particular habitat
Keystone species:
play an important role in ecosystem; removal will cause collapse of ecosystem
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