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The Romans

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 13 May 2017

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Transcript of The Romans

Roman Army
Romans valued their military
Fought in small groups of 100 called a "Century"
Centuries were organized into "Legions"
5000 infantry and 300 cavalry
Roman Expansion
-Do you think it should be required to serve in the military to be a citizen with full rights?
-Conquered all of Italy by 265 BC
-absorbed the Latins, Etruscans, and Greeks into Roman society
-3 types laws for conquered people



-Treating people with respect led to few rebellions and more cultural diffusion

-Rome central location made it the trading hub of the Mediterranean

-Had one great rival in the Mediterranean...

-Competition would lead to the Punic Wars
-3 wars fought between Carthage and Rome...the largest wars fought in history up to that point

-First Punic War was fought from 264-241 BC for control of Sicily...Romans won, but 300,000 people died

-2nd Punic War began in 219 BC when a Carthaginian general, Hannibal, captured the city-state of Saguntum

-Saguntum was a Roman ally located in modern day Spain
Hannibal's Invasion
-Father led Carthage in First Punic War
-Made his son vow to hate Rome and seek to destroy it
-Age 29, assembled an army of 50,000 infantry, 9000 cavalry, and 60 elephants
-3 Part Strategy=Attack+Separate+Isolate

Attack-invade the Italian peninsula

Separate- weaken Rome's relationship with her allies and vassals

Isolate-eliminate a friendless Rome

-Carthage attempted to raise an army nearly 60 years later

-resulted in the 3rd Punic War (149-146 BC), Carthage fell in a siege very quickly

-entire city burned and 50,000 civilians sold as slaves

-Rome emerged as the dominant Mediterranean power and one of the most powerful cities in the world

-over 1,330,000 people were killed in the Punic Wars

-the Republic began experiencing major problems by the end of the 1st Century

-religious turmoil began to creep in with the arrival of Christianity

-wealth became poorly distributed as social divides became extreme

-politics were dominated by only a few powerful people

-turning into a aristocracy...

-what would this eventually lead to?
First Triumvirate
-3 Figures came to dominate Roman politics in 60 BC
-Caesar was the military mastermind and conquered all of Gaul( ) and parts of Rhine ( )
-Pompey felt threatened by Caesar's power and allied himself with the ( )
-Ordered Caesar to give up command of the army and return to Rome
Caesar Damages the Republic
-Caesar refused to comply with the Senate
-Crossed the Rubicon River with a legion to take Rome
-Resulted in Civil War with Pompey+Senate
-Caesar refused and marched on Rome with his own legion
-Crossed the Rubicon River in 49 BC
-Resulted in civil war against Pompey+the Senate
-Caesar eventually won and made several changes as unrivaled ruler of Rome
Octavian would go on to learn much from Caesar
-In 44 BC, Roman senators were tired of Caesar's tyrannical rule
-Led by Marcus Brutus, a group of senators stabbed Caesar to death on March 15
Second Triumvirate
-Octavian came of age and formed an alliance with..................and...........................
-Fought and defeated the Senate led by Brutus.
-Divided Rome up into 3 regions and ruled as military dictators.
-This relationship would deteriorate when Lepidus died of old age.
-Octavian+Antony split rule of Rome's lands between the east and west
Final War of the Republic
-Marc Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia

-Antony started having an affair with..................
-He started sharing power of his lands with her and she became one of the most powerful people in Rome
-Octavian used this as an opportunity to what?

-Senate declared war on Antony's woman, how did he respond?
-Octavian had a navy of 250 ships to oppose the Antony navy of 340.
-Antony's navy=
Octavian's navy=
-Antony had his navy encamped by the Straits of Actium

-Antony's army was defeated on land...............................
-Found Octavian's fleet blocking him in the straits
-Battle of Actium was the largest naval battle seen in 200 years
-Antony and Cleopatra defeated and commit suicide
-Octavian declared supreme ruler of Rome in 31 BC, renamed himself....................
-"Returned" power to the Senate, but had all the control behind the scenes
-Why would he make a show of giving power back to the Senate?
-End of the Roman Republic and beginning of the Roman Empire
-The world saw the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace) between 27 BC-180 AD....................
Debauchery of Rome
-"Debauchery"-extreme indulgence in sensuality and physical pleasure
Caligula (12-41 AD)
-Caligula embezzeled over $2,700,000,000 from the Roman govt., executed people without trial, seized the estates of wealthy citizens he killed, and used govt money to fund massive projects
-The Giant Ship=342 ft long, 6 decks, 800 crew, marble floors, indoor plumbing+heating, full gardens, bars, stained glass windows
-Eventually assassinated at age of 28
-Nero (37-68 AD) was known as the great persecutor of Christians
-Rome was struck by the Great Fire which destroyed much of the city...Nero used this opportunity to build the Domus Aurea
-Domus Aurea (Palace of Gold) was coated in white marble, had a 30 ft bronze statue of Nero, a rotating dome in the main dining room, and the "Rose Room."
-Nero killed himself when he heard he was going to be assassinated
-Colosseum was built over the Domus Aurea after Nero's death to "give Rome back to the people."
-Constantine was born in 271 AD
-Grew up in the greatest era of Christian persecution
-Around age 20 was given control of Britannica and Gaul
-Claimed the throne of Roman emperor and was challenged by several generals....especially Maxentius
Battle of Milvian Bridge
-Constantine's army was outnumbered 2:1
-He claimed to receive a vision of a flaming cross rising above the sun and that he had a dream in which Jesus came to him and told him to march into battle with the Chi-Rho
-Constantine painted the chi-rho on the shields of his men and they won an overwhelming victory
-Constantine granted religious freedom in the Empire after he became the emperor in 311 AD
-converted to Christianity on his death-bed
Religious Freedom+A New Capital
-Constantine issued.............................in 313
-Granted religious freedom all over the Roman Empire...it does NOT make Christianity..................
-Constantine also expanded Roman territory further east
-He was worried about keeping control of the massive empire and the new/culturally different eastern territories
-The capital of the Roman Empire was moved from Rome to the east called.........................
-built on the small fishing town of Byzantium
-took over 6 years to build, and grew over the years
-famous buildings include the Great Palace, Hippodrome, and Hagia Sophia
-became most important city in the world by 350 AD
-the central meeting point between the Eastern+Western world
-Constantine ordered free distributions of food to the poor of the city
-gave out over....................rations a day
-population soon hit over 500,000
-Constantine would die in 337 AD
-He further expanded Rome's borders before he died
-The Empire began to split between the east and west following Constantine's death
-Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the east and west
-The empire officially split into Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire in 395 AD
-Same year, Christianity became the official state religion of both Empires

Roman Empire Divides
Fall of the West
-What do you think caused the division of the Roman Empire?
-Are there any other divisions in you see in America today?
-Roman Empire fell through a combination of civil war, internal strife, and barbarian invasions
-By 476, most of Western Rome had fell to barbarian onslaughts
-Last Roman Emperor was................................
-The city of Rome was later conquered by.........................
-This represented the end of Western Rome and the beginning of the Medieval Ages in Europe
Rise of the East
-Would last over 1000 years after the fall of the West
-Similar to Roman in several ways
-Differed in Rome than several ways
Justinian I
-Greatest of all Byzantine emperors
-Ruled between 527-565 AD
-Conquered large parts of the former Western Roman Empire that was divided by barbarians
-Commissioned the building of the Hagia Sophia
-Wrote the "Corpus Juris Civilis"=a summery of over 4000 Roman laws
-Considered a saint by Orthodox Christians
Byzantine Shrinks
-Justinian I's success was short-lived
-His successors lost Italy to the barbarians...again
-Persia also conquered land in the east
-Weakened from wars in western and eastern Europe, the Byzantine Empire was vulnerable to attacks from the up and coming.........................

Religious Divide
-the differences in Catholicism between (what was)the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire would deeply define European history
-Western Europe would experience constant power struggle between____________vs________________
-What was the problem?

-Orthodox/Eastern Rite would be pushed aside by ____________
-This would set the stage for warfare between ___________vs____________ called the...

-Rome initially began as a small farming village in central Italy around 1000 BC

-surrounded by 3 neighbors who were their early rivals---Latins, Greek colonies, and Etruscans

-Rome engaged in numerous wars with their neighbors over a couple centuries

-Rome took ideas and technologies from each of these cultures and improved them, even though they were often fighting with their neighbors



Early Roman Growth
-around 600 BC the village of Rome was conquered by the Etruscans

-for about a century the size and strength of Rome grew, but the Etruscan kings become more and more cruel

-in 509 BC the last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown by the Roman people

-declared they would never again be ruled by a king

-the native Romans drove the Etruscans out of their territory

-established the Roman Republic in 509 BC
-"Republic"=a form of govt in which citizens vote for and elect leaders who make political decisions for them

-Rome was divided into 2 social classes

-minority---able to vote and hold govt office, wealthy landowners=_________________________

-majority---could vote but NOT hold office, farmers and merchants=_________________________

-majority class broke away from the govt and formed their own assembly of elected officials known as Tribunes

-the minority class, fearing civil war, allowed the Tribunes to continue to exist and the 2 sides wrote the 12 Tables in 451 BC

-12 Tables established that all Roman citizens were free and under the protection of the law...not equal rights


300 man Senate---elected patricians, controlled foreign diplomacy and made financial decisions

Centuriate Assembly---elected citizen-soldiers, could be either patricians or wealthy plebes, served life terms, made laws, elected the consuls

Tribal Assembly---made up of the tribunes, represented the plebes, also made laws

2 Consuls---elected from the Centuriate Assembly, served as commanders of the military, 1 year terms, directed the govt

8 Praetors---chosen by the Centuriate Assembly, 1 oversaw civil courts, 1 oversaw criminal courts, 6 rules the other provinces of Rome, served one year terms
-the Roman Republic attempted to take the best things from a democracy, monarchy, and aristocracy

-had 3 branches of govt=executive, judicial, legislative
-in times of crisis, the consuls could propose the Republic go under dictatorial rule

-had to be approved by the Senate

-dictator would have absolute power over all govt decisions and the military

-dictator power would only last 6 months
-Cincinnatus was a patrician who lost most of his wealth when his son committed a crime and was fined a large sum

-provided for his family by working a small farm on his own

-elected as Consul and pushed through a series of reforms to make both plebeians and patricians equal under the law=

-in 458 BC Rome was invaded by 2 neighboring city-states

-Cincinnatus was plowing his farm when messengers told him he had been elected dictator

-Cincinnatus took dictatorial power of Rome, led the army into battle, defeated and conquered the invading forces, and gave up dictatorial power and returned to his farm...after only 16 days

-His immediate resignation of his absolute authority has often been cited as an example of outstanding leadership, service to the greater good, civic virtue, and modesty
-Hannibal assembled an army of 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 37 war elephants

-in 218 BC he marched from southern Iberia (Spain) into southern Gaul (France)

-he conquered territory and defeated small Roman units along the way

-lost 20,000 men to battle and 11,000 men to guard his supply lines

-reached the foot of the Alps in autumn and decided to cross the mountains to invade Italy

-successfully crossed the Alps with no supply lines and arrived in Italy with 28,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 30 elephants
Hannibal in Italy
-Hannibal and his army ran rampant through Italy for 15 years

-defeated the Romans in three major battles and ravaged the Italian countryside

-many allies abandoned Rome and gave their soliders and supplies to Hannibal

-Rome was forced to employ the "Fabian Strategy"

-the Fabian Strategy is built on avoiding major battles, skirmishing with the enemy, and disrupting supply lines

-the Romans knew time was on their side...Hannibal could not stay in Italy forever

-the Romans slowly woe Hannibal's army down and prepared a major counter-attack

-gave command to Gen. Scipio Africanus who devised a bold strategy...

-Hannibal rushed back to protect his home and had an army of 36,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, and 80 war elephants

-Scipio had 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry

-Scipio devised a tactic to defeat the elephants, then used hi superiors cavalry numbers to ride around the Carthaginians and trap them

-20,000 of Hannibal's men were killed and another 20,000 captured...only 5000 Roman casualties

-Carthage was then surrounded and forced to surrender

-Carthage lost Iberia forever, Rome firmly established her power there over large areas, imposed reparations of 10,000 talents, limited the Carthaginian navy to 10 ships, and forbade Carthage from raising an army without Roman permission

3rd Punic War and Roman Dominance
-the Pax Romana was considered a miracle because there had never been peace for so many centuries in a given period of human history

-been at war with one power or another continuously for 200 years

-Romans considered peace a rare situation that existed when all opponents had been beaten down and lost the ability to fight...war was normal, peace was weird

-Augustus had to persuade Romans that the power and wealth they could achieve in the absence of warfare was better for the Empire than the constant fighting for glory and power

-the peace allowed Rome to accumulate massive wealth

-collecting taxes was much easier and more efficient, and there were no massive military expenses

-Rome became the wealthiest empire in history up to that point

-quality of life greatly increased as people had time and money to advance socially+improve technology
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